• PANKAJ JADHAV Department of Pharmaceutics, Annasaheb Dange College of B Pharmacy Ashta, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.
  • ADHIKRAO YADAV Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Satara, Maharashtra, India.


Objective: At present, more than 40% of drugs are poorly water-soluble that leads to reduced bioavailability. The objective of the present investigation was to overcome the issue of poor aqueous solubility of drug; therefore, stable flurbiprofen (FBF) nanosuspensions were developed by nanoprecipitation method.

Materials and Methods: Based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency, the polymeric system of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E15 and poloxamer 188 was used effectively. The prepared formulations were evaluated for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, saturation solubility, entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, dissolution profile, and stability.

Results: The resultant FBF nanosuspensions depicted particles in size range of 200–400 nm and were physically stable. After nanonization, the crystallinity of FBF was slightly reduced in the presence of excipients. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of all FBF nanosuspensions were significantly increased as compared with FBF powder.

Conclusion: This investigation demonstrated that nanoprecipitation is a promising method to develop stable polymeric nanosuspension of FBF with significant increase in its aqueous solubility.

Keywords: Nanosuspension, Nanoprecipitation, Flurbiprofen, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E15, Lyophilization


1. Suresh S, Ahuja BK, Jena SK, Paidi SK, Bagri S. Formulation, optimization and in vivo evaluation of febuxostat nanosuspension. Int J Pharm 2015;478:540-52.
2. Verma S, Gokhale R, Burgess DJ. A comparative study of top-down and bottom-up approaches for the preparation of micro/nanosuspensions. Int J Pharm 2009;380:216-22.
3. Das B, Amin N. A review on formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11 Suppl 4:1-5.
4. Sarangi MK, Padhi S. Solid lipid nanoparticles: A review. J Crit Rev 2016;3 Suppl 3:5-12.
5. Ghosh I, Bose S, Vippagunta R, Harmon F. Nanosuspension for improving the bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug and screening of stabilizing agents to inhibit crystal growth. Int J Pharm 2011;409:260-8.
6. Wang Y, Hu X, Chen X, Lin X, Zhang L, Tang X, et al. A combined bottom-up/top-down approach to prepare a sterile injectable nanosuspension. Int J Pharm 2014;472:130-9.
7. Muller RH, Keck CM. Twenty years of drug nanocrystals: Where are we, and where do we go? Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2012;80:1-3.
8. Zhang X, Guan J, Ni R, Li LC, Mao S. Preparation and solidification of redispersible nanosuspensions. J Pharm Sci 2014;103:2166-76.
9. Ige PP, Baria RK, Gattani SG. Fabrication of fenofibrate nanocrystals by probe sonication method for enhancement of dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013;108:366-73.
10. Cui F, Xia D, Quan P, Piao H, Sun S, Yin Y, et al. Preparation of stable nitrendipine nanosuspensions using the precipitation-ultrasonication method for enhancement of dissolution and oral bioavailability. Eur J Pharm Sci 2010;40:325-34.
11. Dawood NM, Abdal-Hamid SN. Formulation and characterization of lafutidine nanosuspension for oral drug delivery system. Int J App Pharm 2018;10 Suppl 2:20-30.
12. Buj?áková Z, Dutková E, Baláž M, Turianicová E, Baláž P. Stability studies of As4S4 nanosuspension prepared by wet milling in poloxamer 407. Int J Pharm 2015;478:187-92.
13. Tang X, Yang H, Teng F, Wang P, Tian B, Lin X, et al. Investigation of a nanosuspension stabilized by soluplus® to improve bioavailability. Int J Pharm 2014;477:88-95.
14. Patel CM, Chakraborty M, Murthy ZV. Preparation of fenofibrate nanoparticles by combined stirred media milling and ultrasonication method. Ultrason Sonochem 2014;21:1100-7.
15. Xu Y, Liu X, Lian R, Zheng S, Yin Z, Lu Y, et al. Enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of aripiprazole nanosuspensions prepared by nanoprecipitation/homogenization based on acid-base neutralization. Int J Pharm 2012;438:287-95.
16. Xie Y, Hong C, Dang Y, Lin G, Yao Y, Li G, et al. Effects of stabilizing agents on the development of myricetin nanosuspension and its characterization: An in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 2014;477:251-60.
17. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C. Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2006;332:1302-8.
18. Yadav B, Tanwar YS. Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of flurbiprofen solid dispersions using polyethylene glycols as carrier. J Appl Pharm Sci 2016;6 Suppl l4:60-6.
19. Zhai G, Sun M, Gao Y, Pei Y, Guo C, Cao F, et al. Development of nanosuspension formulation for oral delivery of quercetin. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2010;6:325-32.
20. Jassem NA, Rajab NA. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of azilsartan medoxomil nanosuspension. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9 Suppl 7:110-9.
21. Attari Z, Kalvakuntla S, Reddy MS, Deshpande M, Rao CM, Koteshwara KB. Formulation and characterisation of nanosuspensions of BCS class 2nd and 4th drugs by combinative method. J Exp Nanosci 2016;11 Suppl 4:276-88.
22. Cerdeira AM, Mazzotti M, Gander B. Formulation and drying of miconazole and itraconazole nanosuspensions. Int J Pharm 2013;443:209-20.
23. Singh SK, Srinivasan KK, Gowthamarajan K, Singare DS, Prakash D, Gaikwad NB. Investigation of preparation parameters of nanosuspension by top-down media milling to improve the dissolution of poorly water-soluble glyburide. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011;78:441-6.
24. Salem HF, Kharshoum RM. Nanoprecipitation technique for preparation of sterically stabilized risperidone nanosuspension: In vitro and in vivo study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8 Suppl 5:136-42.
252 Views | 82 Downloads
How to Cite
PANKAJ JADHAV, and ADHIKRAO YADAV. “FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF POLYMERIC NANOSUSPENSION OF FLURBIPROFEN”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 11, Oct. 2019, pp. 183-91, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i11.35670.
Original Article(s)