CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF OXYTETRACYCLINE ON FISH CYPRINUS CARPIO AFTER ACUTE EXPOSURE

Toxic effect of oxytetracyclin on different organs of fish

  • MADHU SHARMA Department of Fisheries, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.
  • JYOTI THAKUR Department of Zoology, Central University, Dharmshala, Himachal Pradesh, India.
  • SUBHASH VERMA Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.
  • PARDEEP SHARMA Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Objective: Cytotoxicity in blood cells and genotoxic alteration in gill, liver, and kidney of Cyprinus carpio acutely (96 h) exposed to 80 mg/L oxytetracycline (OTC) including a control (non-exposed group) were evaluated in the present study. Genotoxic endpoints reflecting different types of genetic damage in cells of the liver, gill, and kidney were also determined by analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities.


Methods: C. carpio was divided into two groups, one control and others treated with 80 mg/L OTC. After 96 h, sampling was done and slides were prepared for different tissues as well as for measuring polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) frequency in blood. Slides were scored for micronucleus, nuclear abnormalities, swollen cells, and vacuolated cytoplasm.


Results: The hereby data obtained showed a higher and significant increase in the genotoxic effect in all the tissues tested. Furthermore, gill cells showed the highest genotoxic effect followed by liver and kidney, while PCE frequency increases up to 72 h of exposure, on the other hand, a significant decrease in the value was observed at 96 h of exposure.


Conclusion: The present study revealed that OTC has cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on different organs and blood cells of C. carpio at this concentration and suggests gill as sensitive tissue for genotoxic assessment.

Keywords: Oxytetracycline, Genotoxicity, Polychromatic erythrocyte frequency, Micronucleus assay, Normochromatic erythrocytes

References

1. Calamari D, Zuccato E, Castiglioni S, Bagnati R, Fanelli R. Strategic survey of therapeutic drugs in the rivers Po and Lambro in Northern Italy. Environ Sci Tech 2003;37:1241-8.
2. Ferrari B, Mons R, Vollat B, Fraysse B, Paxéus N, Lo Giudice R, et al. Environmental risk assessment of six human pharmaceuticals: Are the current environmental risk assessment procedures sufficient for the protection of the aquatic environment? Environ Toxicol Chem 2004;23:1344-54.
3. Li SW, Lin AY. Increased acute toxicity to fish caused by pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents in a pharmaceutical mixture and after solar irradiation. Chemosphere 2015;139:190-6.
4. Chen W, Gao J, Huang J, Wang B, Deng S, Yu G, et al. Fate and removal of typical pharmaceutical and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant from Beijing: A mass balance study. Front Environ Sci Eng 2016;10:491-501.
5. Khanm US, Al Masul KN, Khurshed T, Chakma U. Antibiotics prescription pattern in rural area of Bangladesh, A cross sectional study in Debidwar Upasila of Camilla district. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:36-40.
6. Rocco L, Izzo A, Zito G, Pelus C, Vincenzo CV. Genotoxicity in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to two pharmacological products from an impacted Italian River. J Environ Ana Toxicol 2011;1:103.
7. Minovski N, Saçan MT, Emino?lu EM, Erdem SS, Novi? M. Revisiting fish toxicity of active pharmaceutical ingredients: Mechanistic insights from integrated ligand-/structure-based assessments on acetylcholinesterase. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019;170:548-58.
8. Carvalho RN, Ceriani L, Lppolito A, Lettieri T. Development of the First Watch List Under the Environmental Quality Standards Directive. Joints Technical Report EUR27142; 2015.
9. Ferreira JG, Hawkins AJ, Bricker SB. Management of productivity, environmental effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture the Farm Aquaculture resource management (FARM) model. Aquaculture 2007;264:160-74.
10. Wu Y, Yue Q, Gao Y, Ren Z, Gao B. Performance of bimetallic nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for removal of oxytetracycline. J Environ Sci 2017;69:173-82.
11. Plumb DC. Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th ed. Ames, Lowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015.
12. Ambili TR, Saravanan M, Ramesh M, Abhijith DB, Poopal RK. Toxicological effects of the antibiotic oxytetracycline to an Indian major carp Labeo rohita. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2013;64:494 503.
13. Singh AK, Rathore G, Singh V, Mani I, Singh RK, Mishra SK. Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system. Int J Micro Res 2009;1:25-34.
14. Larsson DG, de Pedro C, Paxeus N. Effluent from drug manufactures contains extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. J Hazard Mater 2007;148:751-5.
15. Li D, Yang M, Hu J, Ren L, Zhang Y, Li K, et al. Determination and fate of oxytetracycline and related compounds in oxytetracycline production wastewater and the receiving river. Environ Toxicol Chem 2008;27:80-6.
16. Wang YC, Chaung RH, Tung LC. Comparison of the cytotoxicity induced by different exposure to sodium arsenite in two fish cell lines. Aquat Toxicol 2004;69:67-79.
17. Sharma M, Chadha P. Widely used non-ionic surfactant 4-nonylphenol: Showing genotoxic effects in various tissues of Channa punctatus. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017;24:11331-9.
18. Morita T, MacGregor JT, Hayashi M. Micronucleus assays in rodent tissues other than bone marrow. Mutagenesis 2011;26:223-30.
19. Chung IK, Cheon WH, Ku SK. Micronucleus test of picrorrhiza rhizoma aqueous extract in bone marrow cells of male ICR mice. Toxicol Res 2011;27:119-23.
20. Sharma M, Chadha P, Sharma S. Acute and sub chronic exposure of 4-nonylphenol to fresh water fish Channa punctatus to evaluate its cytotoxicity. Biochem Cell Arch 2014;14:363-7.
21. Sharma M, Chadha P, Borah MK. Immune response in Channa punctatus after sub chronic 4-nonylphenol treatment and recovery. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 2018;6:20-3.
22. Sharma M, Verma S, Sharma P. Behavioural and genotoxic effects of paracetamol after subchronic exposure to cyprinus carpio. J Entomol Zool Stud 2019;7:22-5.
23. Tasneem S, Yasmeen R. Evaluation of genotoxicity by comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) in tissues of fish Cyprinus carpio during sub-lethal exposure to karankin. J Basic Appl Zoo 2018;79:19.
24. Pacheco M, Santos MA. Biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in european eel (Anguilla anguilla L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2002;53:331-47.
25. Sharma M, Chadha P 4-nonylphenol induced DNA damage and repair in fish, Channa punctatus after subchronic exposure. Drug Chem Toxicol 2017;40:320-5.
26. Wolf JC, Ruehl-Fehlert C, Segner HE, Weber K, Hardisty JF. Pathology working group review of histopathologic specimens from three laboratory studies of Diclofenac in trout. Aquat Toxicol 2014;146:127 36.
27. Andrade RJ, Tulkens PM. Hepatic safety of antibiotics used in primary care. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:1431-46.
28. Talapatra SN, Banerjee SK. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:210 5.
29. Fagr A, El-shehawi AM, Seehy MA. Micronucleus test in fish genome: A sensitive monitor for aquatic pollution. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:606 12.
30. Ahmad W, Ali MN, Farah MA, Ateeq B. Computerized automated morphometric assay including frequency estimation of pentachlorophenol induced nuclear anomalies (micronucleus) in catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Chromosoma 2002;110:570-4.
31. Nunes B, Antunes SC, Gomes R, Campos JC, Braga MR, Ramos AS, et al. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish gambusia holbrooki: Antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2015;68:371-81.
32. Rodrigues S, Antunes SC, Nunes B, Teodorico CA. Histopathological effects in gills and liver of Sparus aurata following acute and chronic exposures to erythromycin and oxytetracycline. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2019;38:190-3.
33. Jiraungkoorskul W, Sahaphong S, Kosai P, Kim M. Micronucleus test: The effect of ascorbic acid on cadmium exposure on fish (Puntius altus). Res J Environ Toxicol 2007;1:27-36.
34. Lee RF, Steinert S. Use of the single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay for detecting DNA damage in aquatic (marine and freshwater) animals. Mutat Res 2003;544:43-64.
35. Gökalp Muranli FD, Güner U. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) following exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin. Mutat Res 2011;726:104-8.
36. Bhatnagar A, Yadav AS, Cheema N. Genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish cirrhinus mrigala using micronucleus assay. Adv Biol 2016;2016:9276963.
37. Sharma M, Chadha P. Acute toxicity of 4-nonylphenol on haemotological profile of fresh water fish Channa punctatus. Res J Rec Sci 2015;4:25 31.
38. Liu J, Lu G, Ding J, Zhang Z, Wang Y. Tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, and effects of erythromycin in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Sci Total Environ 2014;490:914-20.
39. Limbu SM, Zhou L, Sun SX, Zhang ML, Du ZY. Chronic exposure to low environmental concentrations and legal aquaculture doses of antibiotics cause systemic adverse effects in nile tilapia and provoke differential human health risk. Environ Int 2018;115:205-19.
40. Hadi AA, Alwan SF. Histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of fresh water fish, Tilapia zillii, exposed to aluminium. Int J of Pharm Life Sci 2012;3:2071-81.
41. Roskovic B, Cicovacki S, Ciric M, Koko V, Markovic Z, Poleksic V. Effect of supplement feed on liver and intestine of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in semi-intensive rearing system: Histological implication. Biologia 2016;71:212-9.
42. Murad A, Houston AH Samson L. Haematological response to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity, increased temperature and hypoxia in goldfish, Carassius auratus L. J Fish Biol 1990;36:289-305.
43. Cava? T, Könen S. In vivo genotoxicity testing of the amnesic shellfish poison (domoic acid) in piscine erythrocytes using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Aquat Toxicol 2008;90:154-9.
44. Balansky RM, D’Agostini F, Izzotti A, De Flora S. Less than additive interaction between cigarette smoke and chromium(VI) in inducing clastogenic damage in rodents. Carcinogenesis 2000;21:1677-82.
Statistics
86 Views | 10 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
MADHU SHARMA, JYOTI THAKUR, SUBHASH VERMA, and PARDEEP SHARMA. “CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF OXYTETRACYCLINE ON FISH CYPRINUS CARPIO AFTER ACUTE EXPOSURE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 12, Oct. 2019, pp. 134-7, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i12.35740.
Section
Original Article(s)