HYDATID CYST WITH FOCUS ON MANIFESTATIONS, DIAGNOSIS, AND MANAGEMENT: REVIEW
Hydatids or cystic echinococcosis results from being infected with Echinococcus granulosus that found in dogs as definitive hosts and humans, sheep, goats, and pigs as intermediate hosts, mainly prevailing in regions with animal husbandry. Echinococcosis is a public health concern, especially in developing regions; this is due to the medical and economic harm to humans and the inefficiency of treatment and the difficulties of diagnosis in the early stages of infection. Our review summarizes the historical backgrounds of Echinococcus, together with the biological and epidemiological aspects of parasite, in addition to diagnosis and treatment ways.
2. Slimane NN, Taieb M, Khiali R, Rabehi H, Bekhouche R, Bendjaballah A. A huge primary hydatid cyst of uterus: A case report and review of literature. J Univer Surg 2018;6:12.
3. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/echinococcosis/index.html.
4. Available from: https://www.who.int/echinococcosis/epidemiology/en/.
5. Rahman WA, Elmajdoub LE, Noor SA, Wajidi MF. Present status on the taxonomy and morphology of Echinococcus granulosus: A review. Austin J Vet Sci Anim Husb 2015;2:1013.
6. Morar S, Dura H, Cristian A, Perju-Dumbrav? D, Boicean A, Cernu?c?- Mi?ariu M, et al. Hydatid cyst a rare etiology of sudden death. Case report and literature review. Rom J Leg Med 2014;22:31-4.
7. Mohamed M, Wafa I, Kawther I, Annajar BB. Incidence and the history of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs within the past few decades in Libya: A review. J Vet Med Anim Health 2017;9:1-10.
8. Moro P, Schantz PM. Echinococcosis: A review. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13:125-33.
9. Bekçi TT. diagnosis and treatment of human hydatid disease. Eur J Gen Med 2012;9 (Suppl 1):15-20.
10. Tse C, Bullard J, Rusk R, Douma D, Plourde PJ. Surveillance of Echinococcus tapeworm in coyotes and domestic dogs in Winnipeg, Manitoba: Abstract. Can Commun Dis Rep 2019;45:171-6.
11. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/echinococcosis/biology. html.
12. Siracusano A, Delunardo F, Teggi A, Ortona E. Cystic echinococcosis: Aspects of immune response, immunopathogenesis and immune evasion from the human host. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2012;12:16-23.
13. Zhang W, Wen H, Li J, Lin R, McManus DP. Immunology and immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis: An update. Clin Dev Immunol 2012;2012:101895.
14. Zhang W, Ross AG, McManus DP. Mechanisms of immunity in hydatid disease: Implications for vaccine development. J Immunol 2008;181:6679-85.
15. Bayraktar MR, Mehmet N, Durmaz R. Th1 and Th2 inducing cytokines in cystic echinococcosis. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2005;29:167-70.
16. Grubor NM, Jovanova-Nesic KD, Shoenfeld Y. Liver cystic echinococcosis and human host immune and autoimmune follow-up: A review. World J Hepatol 2017;9:1176-89.
17. Kakkos1 SK, Mouzaki A, Vagianos CE. Modifications of the immune system caused by the cestode. Echinococcus granulosus: A review. Ann Gastroenterol 2001;14:91-8.
18. Eckert J, Gemmell MA, Meslin FX, Paw?owski ZS. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: A Public Health Problem of Global Concern. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
19. Mahmoudvand H, Taee N, Kheirandish F, Nadri S, Goudarzi MF, Shahkarami S. Seroprevalence and risk factors of cystic echinococcosis among children in Lorestan province, Western Iran. J Res Med Dent Sci 2018;6:88-92.
20. Eckert J, Gemmell MA, Meslin FX, Paw?owski ZS, editors. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: A Public Health Problem of Global Concern. Paris, France: World Organization for Animal Health; 2001.
21. Ammann RW, Eckert J. Cestodes. Echinococcus. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996;25:655-89.
22. Aydin Y, Altuntas B, Kaya A, Ulas AB, Uyan?k MH, Eroglu A, et al. The availability of Echinococcus igG ELISA for diagnosing pulmonary hydatid cysts. Eurasian J Med 2018;50:144-7.
23. Higuita N, Brunetti E, McCloskey C, Cystic echinococcosis. J Clin Microbiol 2016;54:518-23.
24. Almasri B, Albitar L. Rare isolated primary peritoneal hydatid cysts: A case report from Syria. Qatar Med J 2016;2016:13.
25. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/echinococcosis/health_ professionals/index.html#tx. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug].
26. Cobo F, Yarnoz C, Sesma B, Fraile P, Aizcorbe M, Trujillo R, et al. Albendazole plus praziquantel versus albendazole alone as a pre-operative treatment in intra-abdominal hydatisosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Trop Med Int Health 1998;3:462-6.
27. Gonzalez A, Gomez-Puerta L. Echinococcus. Switzerland: ©Springer International Publishing AG; 2018.
28. World Health Organization. PAIR: Puncture Aspiration, Injection, Re- Aspiration, An Option for the Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
29. Aghajanzadeh M, Hassanzadeh R, Rimaz S, Hemmati H, Delshad MS, Rad AM. Management and outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts. Clin Surg 2017;2:1820.
30. Bhutani N, Kajal P. Hepatic echinococcosis: A review. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018;36:99-105.
31. Velasco-Tirado V, Romero-Alegría Á, Belhassen-García M, Alonso- Sardón M, Esteban-Velasco C, López-Bernús A, et al. Recurrence of cystic echinococcosis in an endemic area: A retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17:455.
32. Mandal S, Mandal MD. Human cystic echinococcosis: Epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012;5:253-60.
33. Abdulhameed MF, Habib I, Al-Azizz SA, Robertson I. Knowledge, awareness and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis among livestock farmers in Basrah province, Iraq. Vet Sci 2018;5:E17.
34. Torgerson PR. Helminth-cestode: Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocular, Zurich open repository and archive. In: Motarjemi Y, editors. Encyclopedia of Food Safety. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2014.
35. Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Appendix A: Disease-Specific Chapters. New Delhi: Ministry of Health; 2019.
36. Morariu S, Lightowlers MW, Cosoroab? I, D?r?bu? G, Bart JM, Ilie M, et al, Utilization of EG95 vaccine for sheep immunization against cystic echinococcosis in Romania. Sci Parasitol 2010;11:29-34.
37. Craig PS, Hegglinx D, Lightowlers MW, Torgerson P, Wang Q. Echinococcosis: Control and Prevention, Advances in Parasitology. Vol. 95. Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd; 2017.
38. Gauci C, Heath D, Chow C, Lightowlers MW. Hydatid disease: Vaccinology and development of the EG95 recombinant vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines 2005;4:103-12.
39. Jiang B, Zhou XN, Zhang HB, Tao Y, Huo LL, Liu N, et al. Slow-release praziquantel for dogs: Presentation of a new formulation for echinococcosis control. Infect Dis Poverty 2017;6:140.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.