PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF SUAEDA MONOICA
The aim of the study is to screen the whole plant extract of Suaeda monoica for its phytochemicals, determine its antibacterial and anti-cancer activities by SRB (sulforhodamine B) assay.
The powdered form of Suaeda monoica with different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, diethyl ether) was used to screen its phytochemicals. MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were performed using microdilution methods. Based on the results of MIC, the lowest concentration of antibacterial agent was then sub-cultured on agar plates for MBC values. Zone of inhibition was determined using agar well diffusion method. The percentage of cell-growth inhibition for breast cancer cell line (MDAMB-32) was studied using SRB assay.
The analysis revealed the presence of varied classes of phytochemicals except for acidic compounds with ethanol extract showing maximum compounds.All the extracts showed effective antibacterial activity against tested pathogens with MIC, MBC values ranging from (0.0156 to 0.625 mg/ml) and (2.5 to 10 mg/ml) respectively. A significant zone of inhibition was observed with diethyl ether extract against Staphylococcus epidermis. The lowest concentration that showed 50% cell growth inhibition against MDAMB-32 was that of diethyl ether extract (38.83 μg/ml).
The present study depicts Suaeda monoica as a natural source of bioactive compounds with significant antibacterial and anti-cancer activities. Further studies concerning the separation and isolation of the compounds are required.
1. Veeresham C. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 3(4): 200–201.
2. Nascimento GG, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazilian journal of microbiology. 2000 Oct;31(4):247-56.
3. Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry. 1991 Jan 1;30(12):3875-83.
4. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical microbiology reviews. 1999 Oct 1;12(4):564-82.
5. Sathvika Ch, Swathi MS, Narasu ML. Anticancer activity on whole plant extracts of Sesuvium portulacastrum on estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell line. International Journal for Research in Engineering Application & Management.2018;4(7):711-715
6. Minocha PK, Tiwari KP. A triterpenoidal saponin from roots of Acanthus illicifolius. Phytochemistry. 1981 Jan 1;20 (1):135-7.
7. Patra JK, Mohapatra AD, Rath SK, Dhal NK, Thatoi H. Screening of antioxidant and antifilarial activity of leaf extracts of Excoecaria agallocha L. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2009;7(1):9-15.
8. Ravikumar S, Gnanadesigan M, Seshserebiah J, Jacob Inbaneson S. Hepatoprotective effect of an Indian salt marsh herb Suaeda monoica Forsk. Ex. Gmel against concanavalin-A induced toxicity in rats. Life Sci Med Res. 2010 Jan 1;2:1-9.
9. Satyavani K, Gurudeeban S, Ramanathan T, Balasubramanian T. Toxicity study of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Suaeda monoica on Hep-2 cell line. Avicenna journal of medical biotechnology. 2012 Jan;4(1):35.
10. Ganesh S, Vennila JJ. Phytochemical Analysis of Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia officinalis by GC-MS. Research journal of phytochemistry. 2011;5(1):60-5.
11. Ugochukwu SC, Uche A, Ifeanyi O. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of stem bark and roots of Dennetia tripetala G. Baker. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2013;3(3):10-3.
12. Eloff JN. A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta medica. 1998 Dec;64(08):711-3.
13. Wayne PA. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 9th International Supplement, M100-S9. 1999.
14. Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. Journal of pharmaceutical analysis. 2016 Apr 1;6(2):71-9.
15. Orellana EA, Kasinski AL. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in cell culture to investigate cell proliferation. Bio-protocol. 2016 Nov 5;6(21).
16. Vajrabhaya LO, Korsuwannawong S. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a thai herb using tetrazolium (MTT) and sulforhodamine b (SRB) assays. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology. 2018 Dec 1;9(1):15.
17. Bandaranayake WM. Bioactivities, bioactive compounds and chemical constituents of mangrove plants. Wetlands ecology and management. 2002 Dec 1;10(6):421-52.
18. Bernhoft A. A brief review on bioactive compounds in plants. A. Bernhoft. 2010:11-7.
19. Bonev B, Hooper J, Parisot J. Principles of assessing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics using the agar diffusion method. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2008 Mar 12;61(6):1295-301.
20. Bano S, Siddiqui BS, Farooq AD, Begum S, Siddiqui F, Kashif M, Azhar M. In vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of Euphorbia caducifolia against four human cancer cell lines and its phytochemical characterisation. Natural product research. 2017 Dec 17;31 (24):2936-40.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.