BIOCIDAL POTENTIALS OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA (LINN.) ON PANEL OF BACTERIAL STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHOEA AND DYSENTERY

  • Mayowa Agunbiade Biocatalysis & Technical Biology Research Group, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

Abstract

Investigations were carried out on cidal effects of crude extract and fractions obtained from the stem bark of Psidium guajava on a panel of seventy-four strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae implicated in diarrhoea and dysentery infections.


A known weight of the powdered sample of the stem bark of the test plant was subjected to cold extraction using methanol and sterile distilled water in ratio 3:2 (v/v). The mixture was left on the laboratory bench for four days with regular agitation after which it was filtered into a clean sterile flask. The supernatant obtained from the solution was concentrated in vacuo using a rotatory evaporator. The aqueous part obtained was then lyophilized to obtain a crude extract of the sample. Fractions were later obtained from the crude extract using different organic solvents in their order of polarity. The crude extract and the fractions were subjected to antibacterial tests against a panel of bacterial strains using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bactericidal concentrations and phytochemical analysis of the extracts were determined. In addition, the mode of action of the active fractions which include killing rate, protein and potassium ions leakages were also investigated.


The crude extracts at a concentration of 25 mg/mL exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains used for this study. On the other hand, all the fractions except the aqueous fraction exhibited antibacterial activities against the panel of bacterial strains at a final concentration of 10 mg/mL. The MIC exhibited by the crude extract against susceptible bacterial strains ranged between 1.56 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL. On the other hand, those for the four fractions ranged between 0.31 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.13 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL and 0.63 mg/mL to 5.0 mg/mL for the crude extract and fractions respectively. The time kill assay revealed that the percentage of the cells killed increase with an increase in the concentrations of the fractions as well as contact time intervals. Finally, the protein and potassium ions leakages from the bacterial cells followed the same trend with that of time-kill assay.


In conclusion, the stem bark extracts of Psidium guajava exhibited appreciable bactericidal effects on bacterial strains associated with diarrhoea and dysentery in humans.

Keywords: Psidium guajava, Antibacterial, Phytochemicals, Killing rate, Protein leakage, Potassium ions leakage.

References

1. Pelczar MJ, Chan EC, Kruz NR. Microbiology 5th edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill publication Company Ltd, New Delhi 2006
2. Alayande KA, Pohl CH, Ashafa AOT. In vitro Assessment of Euclea crispa (Thunb.) Leaf Extracts against Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli - Common Diarrhoeal Agents. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2018; 6(4): 158-165
3. Keay RWJ. Trees of Nigeria. A revised version of Nigerian Trees (1960), 1964) by Keay R.W.J, Onochie CFA, Stanfield DP. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1989
4. Hassimotto NM, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J of Agriculture Food Chem. 2005; 53: 2928-2935
5. Haida KS, Baron A, Haida K. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two varieties of guava and rue. RevistaBrasiliera de Ciencias da Saude. 2011; 28:11-19
6. Barbalho SM, Farinazzi-Machado FMV, De AlvaresGoulart R, Brunnati ACS, Otoboni AMMB, Nicolau CCT. Psidiumguajava (Guava): A plant of multi-purpose medicinal applicatiins. Medicinal and aromatic plants. 2012; 1: 104
7. Ryu NH, Park KR, Kim SM, Yun HM, Nam D, Lee SG, et al. A hexane fraction of Guava leaves (Psidiumguajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells. Journal of Medicinal Food 2012; 15: 231-241
8. Pelegrini PB, Murad AM, Silva LP, Dos Santos RC, Costa FT, Tagliari PD, et al. Identification of a novel storage glycine-rich peptide from guava (Psidiumguajava) seeds with activity against Gram negative bacteria peptides. 2008; 29: 1271-1279
9. Bontempo P, Doto A, Miceli M, Mita L, Benedetti, R, Nebbioso A, et al. Psidiumguajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: Induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation. Cell proliferation. 2012; 45: 22-31
10. Akinpelu DA, Onakoya TM. Antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants used in folklore remedies in South-western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2006; 5: 1078-1081
11. Begun S, Hassan SI, Siddiqui BS, Shaheen F, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidiumguajava. Phytochemistry 2002; 61(4): 399-403
12. Han EH, Hwang YP, Choi JH, Yang JH, Seoj K, Chung YC, et al. Psidiumguajava extract inhibits thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) production in human keratinocytes by inducing heme oxygenase and blocking NF-? B and STAT1 activation. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2011; 32:136-145
13. Livingstone RNR, Sundar K. Psidiumguajava Linn. Confers gastro protective effects on rats. European review on Medicinal Pharmacology Science. 2012; 16: 151-156
14. Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 15th Edition, London, Saunders Publishers. 2002.
15. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods- a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London. Chapman and Hall, 1998; pp 60-66.
16. Akinpelu DA, Odewade JO, Aiyegoro OA, Ashafa AOT, Akinpelu OF, Agunbiade MO. Biocidal effects of stem bark extract of Chrysophyllumalbidium G. Don on vancomycin resistant Staphyloccocus aureus. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016; 16: 105-113
17. Akinpelu DA, Kolawole DO. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piliostigmathonninigii (Schumi) Science focus 2004; 7: 64-70
18. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 1976; 72:248-254
19. Achinto S, Munirrudin A. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract of Albiziazygia in animal model. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2009; 22: 74-77
20. Shanmugtapriya SA, Manilal A, Sujith S, Selvin J, Kiran GS, Natarajaseenivasan K. Antimicrobial activity of seaweeds extracts multi-resistant pathogens. Annals of Microbiology. 2008; 58(3): 535-541
21. Stojkovic DS, Jelene Z., Marina S, Jasmina G, Isabel GFR, Ferreir TJ. Antibacterial activity of Veronica montana L. extract and of protocatechuic acid incorporated in a food system. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 55: 209-213
22. Pankey GA, Sabath ID. Clinical relevance of bacteriostatic against bactericidal mechanisms of action in the treatment of Gram positive bacterial infections. Clinical infect. Dis. 2004; 38: 864-870
23. Booth IR. Regulation of cytoplasmic pH in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 1985; 49:359-378.
24. Epstein W. Osmoregulation by potassium transport in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1986; 39:73-80
25. Cao MT, Wang R, Helmann JD. Antibiotic that inhibit cell wall biosynthesis induce expression of the Bacillus subtilis and M regulons. Mol. Microbiol. 2002; 45: 1267-1276
Statistics
8 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Agunbiade, M. “BIOCIDAL POTENTIALS OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA (LINN.) ON PANEL OF BACTERIAL STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHOEA AND DYSENTERY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 12, no. 12, Oct. 2019, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/36003.
Section
Original Article(s)