A GREEN VORTEX-ASSISTED IONIC LIQUID-BASED DISPERSIVE LIQUID–LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION METHOD FOR PRECONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF TRACE CADMIUM IN FOOD SAMPLES

  • RAGAA EL SHEIKH Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.
  • MOHAMMED ABDULLAH ATWA Department of Crops, Food Technology Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.
  • AMIRA ATEF ABDULLAH Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.
  • ANDAYMAN ABOU ELFETOUH GOUDA Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.

Abstract

Objective: Green, easy, and sensitive vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction technique (VA-IL-DLLME) was developed to preconcentrate and determine trace quantities of cadmium (Cd2+) ions from real food samples, before detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.


Methods: The proposed technique base on the utilization of IL (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate) as an extraction solvent for Cd2+ ions after the complexation with 2-(2’-benzothiazolylazo) chromotropic acid at pH 8.0. The impact of different analytical parameters on microextraction efficiency was investigated. The validation of the proposed procedure was verified by the test of certified reference material (SRM spinach leaves 1570A) applying the standard addition method.


Results: In the range of 1.0–300 μg/L, the calibration graph was linear. Limit of detection, preconcentration factor and the relative standard deviation (RSD%, 25, 150, and 250 μg/L, n=5) were 0.2 μg/L, 100, and 2.0–3.2%, respectively.


Conclusion: Green, VA-IL-DLLME method was developed and applied to preconcentrate and determine of trace quantities of Cd2+ in real food samples with satisfactory results. The obtained recovery values showed good agreement with the certified values.

Keywords: Cadmium, Vortex-assisted, Ionic liquid, Microextraction, Food samples, Flame atomic absorption spectrometry

Author Biography

RAGAA EL SHEIKH, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.

Pharmaceutical Analysis

References

1. Yilmaz E, Soylak M. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples. Anal Chim Acta 2015;886:75-82.
2. Gouda AA, Zordok WA. Solid-phase extraction method for preconcentration of cadmium and lead in environmental samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Turk J Chem 2018;42:1018-31.
3. ALOthman ZA, Habila MA, Alfadul SM, Yilmaz E, Soylak M. A green, novel and simple microprecipitation technique for separation and preconcentration of cadmium with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol in food samples and determination by microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Methods 2016;8:3545-9.
4. Hu X, Zhu K, Guo Q, Liu Y, Ye M, Sun Q. Ligand displacement-induced fluorescence switch of quantum dots for ultrasensitive detection of cadmium ions. Anal Chim Acta 2014;812:191-8.
5. Khan S, Yilmaz E, Kazi TG, Soylak M. Vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction using Triton X-114 for ultratrace cadmium prior to analysis. Clean 2014;42:1083-8.
6. Khairy M, El-Safty SA, Shenashen MA. Environmental remediation and monitoring of cadmium. TrAC Trend Anal Chem 2014;62:56-68.
7. Chen H, Han J, Wang Y, Hu YT, Ni L, Liu YY, et al. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction of cadmium(II) using an ionic liquid as the extractant. Microchim Acta 2014;181:1455-61.
8. Soylak M, Yilmaz E. Determination of cadmium in fruit and vegetables by ionic liquid magnetic microextraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Lett 2015;48:464-76.
9. Gouda AA, Amin AH, Ali IS, Al Malah Z. Green dispersive micro solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes for preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in food, water, and tobacco samples. Curr Anal Chem 2018;14:1-12.
10. Gouda AA, Al Ghannam SM. Impregnated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as efficient sorbent for the solid phase extraction of trace amounts of heavy metal ions in food and water samples. Food Chem 2016;202:409-16.
11. Rosa FC, Duarte FA, Paniz JN, Heidrich GM, Nunes MA, Flores EM, et al. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: An efficient approach for the extraction of Cd and Pb from honey and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchem J 2015;123:211-7.
12. Rojas FS, Ojeda CB, Pavon JM. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of cadmium in environmental, water and food samples. Anal Methods 2011;3:1652-5.
13. Jalbani N, Soylak M. Ligandless ultrasonic-assisted and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of copper, nickel and lead in different food samples. Food Chem 2015;167:433-7.
14. Alothman ZA, Al-Shaalan NH, Habila MA, Unsal YE, Tuzen M,
Soylak M. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of lead(II) as 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine chelates from food and water samples. Environ Monit Assess 2015;187:9.
15. Alothman ZA, Habila M, Yilmaz E, Soylak M. A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methodology for copper (II) in environmental samples prior to determination using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J AOAC Int 2013;96:1425-9.
16. Galbeiro R, Garcia S, Gaubeur I. A green and efficient procedure for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium, nickel and zinc from freshwater, hemodialysis solutions and tuna fish samples by cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2014;28:160-5.
17. Xiang G, Wen S, Wu X, Jiang X, He L, Liu Y. Selective cloud point extraction for the determination of cadmium in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem 2012;132:532-6.
18. Oliveira RV, Vieira US, Maciel MV, Neri TS, Sales GS, Menezes RM, et al. Development of a method for the determination of cadmium levels in seawater by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an online cloud-point extraction system. Turk J Chem 2016;40:1055-63.
19. .Gouda AA. A new coprecipitation method without carrier element for separation and preconcentration of some metal ions at trace levels in water and food samples. Talanta 2016;146:435-41.
20. Oymak T, Tokalioglu S, Yilmaz V, Kartal S, Aydin D. Determination of lead and cadmium in food samples by the coprecipitation method. Food Chem 2009;113:1314-7.
21. Bulut VN, Demirci H, Ozdes D, Gundogdu A, Bekircan O, Soylak M, et al. A novel carrier element-free co-precipitation method for separation/preconcentration of lead and cadmium ions from environmental matrices. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 2016;35:1709-15.
22. Khan S, Kazi TG, Soylak M. A green and efficient in-syringe ionic liquid-based single step microextraction procedure for preconcentration and determination of cadmium in water samples. J Ind Engin Chem 2015;27:149-52.
23. Sun P, Armstrong DW. Ionic liquids in analytical chemistry. Anal Chim Acta 2010;661:1-16.
24. Altunay N, Elik A, Gurkan R. Vortex assisted-ionic liquid based dispersive liquid liquid microextraction of low levels of nickel and cobalt in chocolate-based samples and their determination by FAAS. Microchem J 2019;147:277-85.
25. Elik A, Altunay N, Gurkan R. Microextraction and preconcentration of Mn and Cd from vegetables, grains and nuts prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using room temperature ionic liquid. J Mol Liq 2017;247:262-8.
26. Gouda AA. Solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes and quinalizarin for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of some heavy metals in food, water and environmental samples. Int J Environ Anal Chem 2014;94:1210-22.
27. Gouda AA, Summan AM, Amin AH. Development of cloud-point extraction method for preconcentration of trace quantities of cobalt and nickel in water and food samples. RSC Adv 2016;6:94048-57.
28. Hafez EM, El Sheikh R, Fathalla M, Sayqal A, Gouda AA. An environment-friendly supramolecular solvent-based liquid-phase microextraction method for determination of aluminum in water and acid digested food samples prior to spectrophotometry. Microchem J 2019;150:104100.
29. Khan S, Kazi TG, Soylak M. Rapid ionic liquid-based ultrasound assisted dual magnetic microextraction to preconcentrate and separate cadmium-4-(2-thiazolylazo)-resorcinol complex from environmental and biological samples. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014;123:194-9.
30. Lemos VA, Oliveira LA. Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid microextraction for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium content in mussel samples. Food Control 2015;50:901-6.
31. Akkaya E, Chormey DS, Bak?rdere S. Sensitive determination of cadmium using solidified floating organic drop microextraction-slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Environ Monit Assess 2017;189:513-20.
32. Alahabadi A, Rastegar A, Esrafili A, Rezai Z, Bandegharaei AH, Farzadkia M. Solidified floating organic drop microextraction for pre-concentration and trace monitoring of cadmium ions in environmental food and water samples. J Iran Chem Soc 2017;14:1725-33.
33. Dos Santos SE, Correia LO, dos Santos LO, dos Santos V, Vieira E, Lemos VA. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead and nickel in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Microchim Acta 2012;178:269-75.
34. Chamsaz M, Atarodi A, Eftekhari M, Asadpour S, Adibi M. Vortex- assisted ionic liquid microextraction coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of trace levels of cadmium in real samples. J Adv Res 2013;4:35-41.
35. ALOthman ZA, Habila M, Yilmaz E, Soylak M. Solid phase extraction of Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from food samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes impregnated with 4-(2-thiazolylazo)resorcinol. Microchim Acta 2012;177:397-403.
36. Golbedaghi R, Jafari S, Yaftian MR, Azadbakht R, Salehzadeh S, Jaleh B. Determination of cadmium(II) ion by atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction. J Iran Chem Soc 2012;9:251-6.
37. Ma JJ, Du X, Zhang JW, Li JC, Wansg LZ. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of trace cadmium in water samples. Talanta 2009;80:980-4.
Statistics
50 Views | 18 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
SHEIKH, R. E., M. A. ATWA, A. A. ABDULLAH, and A. A. ELFETOUH GOUDA. “A GREEN VORTEX-ASSISTED IONIC LIQUID-BASED DISPERSIVE LIQUID–LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION METHOD FOR PRECONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF TRACE CADMIUM IN FOOD SAMPLES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 2, Dec. 2019, pp. 178-84, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i2.36394.
Section
Original Article(s)