IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF SECOISOLARICIRESINOL DIGLUCOSIDE ON HT-29, PA-1 CELL LINES, AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY
Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity and α- amylase inhibitory activity of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG).
Methods: The cytotoxic activity was conducted on HT-29 (human colon cancer cell line) and PA-1 (human ovarian cancer cell line) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the α- amylase inhibitory activity using acarbose as a standard. Both the tests were evaluated at different concentrations, 3.125–100 μg/ml and 50–2000 μg correspondingly and the concentration required for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined graphically. The effect of the samples on the proliferation of HT-29 and PA-1 was expressed as the percentage cell viability.
Results: SDG exhibited a considerable dose- and time-dependent inhibition on both HT-29 and PA-1 and also observed a concentration-dependent α-amylase inhibitory activity that leads in reduction of starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.
Conclusion: The present in vitro study concluded that SDG can be a potent anticancer and moderate hyperglycemic component.
2. Dixon N, Wong LS, Geerlings TH, Micklefield J. Cellular targets of natural products. Nat Prod Rep 2007;24:1288-310.
3. Petrovska BB. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacogn Rev 2012;6:1-5.
4. Oran SA, Al-Eisawi DM. Check-list of medicinal plants in Jordan. Dirasat 1998;25:84-112.
5. Jain K. Medicinal plants of India. Raj Bandhu Ind Co 1985;5:1-4.
6. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod 2007;70:461-77.
7. Rates SM. Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon 2001;39:603-13.
8. Graham JG, Quinn ML, Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:347-77.
9. Food and Agriculture Organization. Trade in Medicinal Plants, Economic and Social Department. United Nations, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization; 2004.
10. Kuno T, Testuya T, Akira H, Takuji T. Cancer chemoprevention through the induction of apoptosis by natural product. J Biophysical Chem 2012;3:156-73.
11. Wu J, Wu Y, Yang BB. Anticancer activity of Hemsleya amabilis extract. Life Sci 2002;71:2161-70.
12. Kviecinski MR, Felipe KB, Schoenfelder T, de Lemos Wiese LP, Rossi MH, Gonçalez E, et al. Study of the antitumor potential of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;117:69-75.
13. Okhti ZA, Al-Ezzi MI, Abdulmahdi R. The protective role of flaxseed lignan in male rabbits with high fat diet: A histopathological study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:90-4.
14. Berquin IM, Edwards IJ, Chen YQ. Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids. Cancer Lett 2008;269:363-77.
15. Czene S, Testa E, Nygren J, Belyaev I, Harms-Ringdahl M. DNA fragmentation and morphological changes in apoptotic human lymphocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;294:872-8.
16. Jayashree T, Kishore KK, Vinay M, Vasavi P, Chandrashekhar N, Manohar VS. Evaluation of the diuretic effect of the chloroform extract of the Benincasa hispida Rind (pericarp) extract in Guinea pigs J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:578-82.
17. Lewis WH, Elvin-Lewes MP. Medicinal Botany; Plants Affecting Man’s Health. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1997. p. 515.
18. Prabakaran M, Chandrakala N, Selvam AP. Antimicrobial activity of Indigofera glandulosa (wild). Asian J Plant Sci Res 2011;1:18-25.
19. Kurzer MS, Xu X. Dietary phytoestrogens. Annu Rev Nutr 1997;17:353-81.
20. Oroian M, Escriche I. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis. Food Res Int 2015;74:10-36.
21. Nandi I, Ghosh M. Studies on functional and antioxidant property of dietary fibre extractedfrom defatted sesame husk, rice bran and flaxseed. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 2015;5:129-36.
22. Alphonse PA, Aluko RE. Anti-carcinogenic and anti-metastatic effects of flax seed lignan secolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Discov Phytomed 2015;2:12-7.
23. Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;12:691-705.
24. Serraino M, Thompson LU. Flaxseed supplementation and early markers of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1992;63:159-65.
25. Davies MJ, Bowey EA, Adlercreutz H, Rowland IR, Rumsby PC. Effects of soy or rye supplementation of high-fatdiets on colon tumour development in azoxymethane-treated rats. Carcinogenesis 1999;20:927-31.
26. Bird RP. Observation and quantification of aberrant crypts in the murine colon treated with a colon carcinogen: Preliminary findings. Cancer Lett 1987;37:147-51.
27. Nair SS, Kavrekar V, Mishra A. In vitro studies on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts. Pelagia Res Libr Eur J Exp Biol 2013;3:128-32.
28. Shailimavardhini RD, Reddinaik BM, Ramesh B. Screening and production of ?-amylase from Aspergillus niger using zero value material for solid state fermentat ion. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005;5:55-60.
29. Daddala GB, Rani AS, Papineni S. Optimization of simple methodology for extraction, purification of SDG from Linum usitatissimum and its characterization. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2018;12:267-74.
30. Stockert JC, Blázquez-Castro A, Cañete M, Horobin RW, Villanueva A. MTT assay for cell viability: Intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets. Acta Histochem 2012;114:785-96.
31. Saravanan BC, Sreekumar C, Bansal GC, Ray D, Rao JR, Mishra AK. A rapid MTT colorimetric assay to assess the proliferation index of two Indian strains of Theileria annulata. Vet Parasitol 2003;113:211-6.
32. Xiao JB, Chen XQ, Zhang YW, Jiang XY, Xu M. Cytotoxicity of Marchanpia convoluta leaf extracts on human liver and lung cancer cells. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006;39:731-8.
33. Sudha P, Zinjarde SS, Bhargava SY, Kumar AR. Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:5.
34. Sung MK, Lautens M, Thompson LU. Mammalian lignan inhibit the growth of estrogen independent human colon tumor cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18:1405-8.
35. Jenab M, Thompson LU. The influence of flaxseed and lignans on colon carcinogenesis and beta-glucuronidase activity. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:1343-8.
36. Prasad K. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of diabetes in diabetic BB prone rats: Effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Mol Cell Biochem 2000;209:89-96.
37. Prasad K. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside from flaxseed delays the development of Type 2 diabetes in Zucker rat. J Lab Clin Med 2001;138:32-9.
38. Prasad K. Suppression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a new antidiabetic agent. Int J Angiol 2002;11:107-9.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.