• GUDURU RAJESWARI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • SWARNA LATHA D Department of Pharmacognosy, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • CHANDRA SEKHAR KB Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Objective: The aim of the present study is to screen for the phytochemical constituents which are of pharmacological importance present in the ethanolic extract of whole plant of Sida glutinosa (SG).

Methods: The ethanolic extract of the dried whole plant of SG is subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of major phytoconstituents such as phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The extract was screened for its antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, Iron (III) to Iron (II) reducing activity, and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Further, the ethanolic extract was subjected to fingerprinting technique high-pressure thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (Rp-HPLC) was performed to estimate the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, and alkaloids quantitatively in isocratic mode.

Results: Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of the plant showed the presence of pharmacologically important constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and terpenoids. The study also revealed the potential antioxidant activity of the extract with IC50 value. The extract fingerprinting through HPTLC revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents. Rp-HPLC showed 0.35±0.12 μg/ml of total phenolics, 0.0013±0.05μg/ml of alkaloids, and 0.00081±0.08 μg/ml of flavonoids.

Conclusion: Scientific evaluation of SG which has therapeutic significance was carried out which is an important concept for the standardization of the plant-based drug. Further, there is a need for isolation and characterization of the lead molecules their systemic evaluation for its pharmacological activities.

Keywords: Sida glutinosa, In vitro antioxidant, High-pressure thin-layer chromatography, Reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography


1. Deb DB. The Flora of Tripura State. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers; 1981. p. 307.
2. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: PID, CSIR; 1992. p. 226.
3. Das N, Achari B, Harigaya Y, Dinda B. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2011;13:965-71.
4. Das N, Nath J, Dinda B. Antioxidant phytochemicals from Sida glutinosa. J Pharm Res 2012;5:4845-8.
5. Das N, Saha T, Bhattacharjee S. A new biologically active ecdysteroid from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;3:73-8.
6. Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy: Techniques and Experiments. 13th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2005, 149-156.
7. Government of India. Anonymous. Indian Pharmacopoeia. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 1966. p. 367-70.
8. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994.
9. Chase CR Jr., Pratt R. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs with particular reference to development of a system of identification. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc 1949;38:324-31.
10. Harbone JJ. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1984. p. 85-4.
11. Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. New Delhi: ELBS Publication; 1989. p. 171.
12. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
13. Cuendet M, Hostettman K, Potterat O. Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blume. Helv Chim Act 1997;80:1144-52.
14. Garrat DC. The quantitative analysis of drug Japan. Vol. 3. Japan: Chapman and Hall; 1964. p. 456-8.
15. Pathania V, Gupta AP, Singh B. Improved. HPTLC method for determination of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 2006;29:877-87.
16. Potawale SE, Pawar PD, Gabhe SY, Mahadik KR. A validated isocratic RP-HPLC method for concurrent estimation of gymnemagenin, gallic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid in polyherbal formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:488-92.
17. Ang LF, Yam MF, Fung YT, Kiang PK, Darwin Y. HPLC method for simultaneous quantitative detection of quercetin and curcuminoids in traditional Chinese medicines. J Pharmacopuncture 2014;17:36-49.
18. Devaliya R, Shirsat M. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for quantification of berberine in ethanol fraction of methanol extract and developed formulation of Tinospora Cordifolia. Orient J Chem 2017;33:989-94.
19. Prasad M, Venugopal SP, Alagarsamy V, Sridevi C. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity study of stem bark of Syzygium cumini. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:209-13.
20. SenthilKumar RP, Bhuvaneshwari V, Malyaman V, RanjithKumar R, Sathiyavimal S. Phytochemical screening of aqueous leaf extract of Sida acuta Burm. F and its antibacterial activity. J Emerg Technol Innov Res 2018;5:474-8.
21. Murthy GP, Leelja BC, Ravishankar HG, Raj CG, Kumar R. Evaluation of neuroprotection and antioxidant activites via Drosophila model system in the active principle derived from Sida glutinosa comm. Ex Cav.-An aboriginal ethno-medicinal plant drug practiced in the folklore medicinal system. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 2018;11:8855-62.
22. Muneshwari P, Deepika S, Gopalakrishnan VK, Perumal PC, Poornima K. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of chloroform extract of Sida acuta Burm. F. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016;8:663-7.
23. Shulammithi R, Sharanaya M, Tejaswini R, Kiranmai M. Standardization and quality evaluation of herbal drugs. J Pharm Biol Sci 2016;11:89-100.
24. de Olidera AM, Pinheiro LS, Pereira CK, Matias WN, Gomes RA, Chaves OS, Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some Malvaceae species. Antioxidants 2012;1:33-43.
25. Hernandez-Rodriguez P, Baquero LP, Larrota HR. Flavonoids: Potential therapeutic agents by their antioxidant capacity. In: Health Benefits and Potential Applications. United Kingdom: Wood Head Publishing; 2019. p. 265-88.
26. Gurung R. Preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenol and flavanoid content of Mimosa rubicaulis and Reinwardtia indica. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2020;12:54-8.
27. Ajanal M, Gundkalle MB, Nayak SU. Estimation of total alkaloid in chitrakadivati by UV-spectrophotometer. Anc Sci Life 2012;31:198-201.
28. Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. ScientificWorldJournal 2013;2013:162750.
93 Views | 117 Downloads
How to Cite
GUDURU RAJESWARI, S. LATHA D, and C. SEKHAR KB. “PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WHOLE PLANT OF SIDA GLUTINOSA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 4, Apr. 2020, pp. 65-74, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i4.36697.
Original Article(s)