POST-GLENOID FORAMEN: A RARE EMISSARY FORAMEN IN HUMAN SKULL
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of post-glenoid foramen in human skulls.
Methods: The study was carried out in 100 adult dry human skulls with 200 temporal bones on each side (right and left) which were collected from the Department of Anatomy at RVS Dental College and Hospital, Coimbatore. The selected skulls were placed on a flat table and the considerable foramen was visually identified by two investigators. The foramen was examined by a probing method to find out its patency.
Results: Of 100 skulls (200 temporal bones), only one skull showed a unilateral post-glenoid foramen on the mandibular fossa of the left side temporal bone (2% of 200).
Conclusion: The emissary veins are considered as an important encephalic venous drainage that connects the intracranial and extracranial venous pathway through emissary foramen. If there is little variation, and rare occurrence of the emissary foramen may cause serious pathological condition. Thereby, the present study highlights one of the rare emissary foramen, the post-glenoid foramen. This anatomical study of post-glenoid foramen may help the surgeons while operating temporomandibular joint and inner ear malformation to avoid the risk of accidental bleeding during surgery.
2. Braga J. Emissary canals in the hominoidea and their phylogenetic significance. Folia Primatol (Basel) 1995;65:144-53.
3. Williams PC, Warwick R, Dyson M, Banister IH. Gray’s Anatomy. 37th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1989. p. 225-6.
4. Reymond J, Charuta A, Wysocki J. The morphology and morphometry of the foramina of the greater wing of the human sphenoid bone. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2005;64:188-93.
5. Alsherhri H, Alqahtani B, Alqahtani M. Dilated petrosquamosal sinus, mastoid emissary vein and external jugular vein: A rare cause of pulsatile tinnitus, vertigo and sensorineural hearing- Case report. Indian J Otol 2011;17:123-6.
6. Conroy G. The emissary foramina: Their value in platyrrhine systematic. Am J Phys Anthropol 1982;57:7-12.
7. Boyd GI. The emissary foramina of the cranium in man and the anthropoids. J Anat 1930;65:108-21 .
8. Wysocki J. Morphology of the temporal canal and postglenoid foramen with reference to the size of the jugular foramen in man and selected species of animals. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2002;61:199-208
9. Marsot-Dupuch K, Gayet-Delacroix M, Elmaleh-Berges M, Bonneville F, Lasjaunias P. The petrosquamous sinus: CT and MR findings of a rare emissary vein. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:1186-93.
10. Giesemann AM, Goetz GF, Neuburger J, lenarz T, Lanfermann H. Persistent petrosquamosal sinus: High incidence in cases of complete aplasia of the semicircular canals. Radiology 2011;259:825-53.
11. San Millán Ruíz D, Gailloud P, Yilmaz H, Perren F, Rathgeb JP, Rüfenacht DA, et al. The petrosquamosal sinus in humans. J Anat 2006;209:711-20.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.