REVERSAL OF CISPLATIN-INDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT BY GALLIC ACID IN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on cisplatin-induced memory impairment (MI) in the rat model.
Methods: Five groups of Wistar albino rats (n=6) were employed and the duration of the study was 22 days, excluding the pre-treatment period. Animals were pretreated with gallic acid for a period of 5 days and continued daily (200 mg/kg) for 22 days. The cisplatin (3 mg/kg) was given once in a week for 3 consecutive weeks to induce MI, whereas donepezil was used as standard. The evaluation was done by a change in body weight, memory activity by Morris water maze (MWM), locomotor activity by actophotometer, antioxidant activity by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), and estimation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain homogenate.
Results: Administration of cisplatin has induced MI by increasing in escape latency time, decrease in time spent in the target quadrant in the MWM task and it was reversed by gallic acid treatment. Decreased locomotor activity by cisplatin was also increased by gallic acid when tested by actophotometer. Cisplatin administration has induced oxidative stress by increasing TBARS and decreasing GSH levels. Gallic acid due to its proven antioxidant activity reversed the effects of cisplatin. The AChE level was significantly increased in the control group, whereas treatment groups have shown a decrease in AChE level.
Conclusion: Gallic acid may serve as a primary agent to treat the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress associated memory dysfunctions. However, more extensive studies are needed before utilization in the clinical trial.
2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA, USA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
3. Chen RC, Liu CL, Lin MH, Peng LN, Chen LY, Liu LK, et al. Non-pharmacological treatment reducing not only behavioral symptoms, but also psychotic symptoms of older adults with dementia: A prospective cohort study in Taiwan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:440-6.
4. World Health Organization. Active Aging: A Policy Framework; 2002. Available from: https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/active_ ageing/en.
5. The Healthline Editorial Team, Dementia and Alzheimer’s: What are the Differences? 2016. Available from: https://www.alzheimers.net/ difference-between- Alzheimer’s-and-dementia.
6. Kumar GP, Khanum F. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals. Pharmacogn Rev 2012;6:81.
7. Dasari S, Tchounwou PB. Cisplatin in cancer therapy: Molecular mechanisms of action. Eur J Pharmacol 2014;740:364-78.
8. Isuzugawa K, Inoue M, Ogihara Y. Catalase contents in cells determine sensitivity to the apoptosis inducer gallic acid. Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24:1022-6.
9. Kim YJ. Antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of gallic acid. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:1052-5.
10. Kroes BV, Van den Berg AJ, Van Ufford HQ, Van Dijk H, Labadie RP. Anti-inflammatory activity of gallic acid. Plant Med 1992;58:499-504.
11. Hajipour S, Sarkaki A, Farbood Y, Eidi A, Mortazavi P, Valizadeh Z. Effect of gallic acid on dementia type of Alzheimer disease in rats: Electrophysiological and histological studies. Basic Clin Neurosci 2016;7:97.
12. Morris R. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1984;11:47-60.
13. Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr., Featherstone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 1961;7:88-95.
14. Wever EG. Water temperature as an incentive to swimming activity in the rat. J Comp Psychol 1932;14:219.
15. Woods PJ, Holland CH. Performance on a black-white discrimination problem in a water maze as influenced by water temperature and swimming ability. Psychol Rep 1961;9:433-9.
16. Bhosale UA, Yegnanarayan R, Pophale PD, Zambare MR, Somani RS. Study of central nervous system depressant and behavioral activity of an ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (Agadha) in different animal models. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2011;1:104.
17. Kadam U, Bhosale A. Zopiclone (cyclopyrrolone): A novel hypnosedative; hypnosedation caused by zopiclone does not impair memory-learning in albino mice. CNS Neurosci Ther 2010;16:e180-4.
18. Thornburg JE, Moore KE. A comparison of effects of apomorphine and ET495 on locomotor activity and circling behaviour in mice. Neuropharmacology 1974;13:189-97.
19. Garcia JM, Scherer T, Chen J, Guillory B, Nassif A, Papusha V, et al. Smith, inhibition of cisplatin-induced lipid catabolism and weight lossby ghrelin in male mice. Endocrinology 2013;154:3118-29.
20. Ellman GL, Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959;82;70-7.
21. Uchiyama M, Mihara M. Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal Biochem 1978;86:271-8.
22. Beutler E. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.
23. Hague SM, Klaffke S, Bandmann O, Neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:1058-63.
24. Baldeiras I, Santana I, Proença MT, Garrucho MH, Pascoal R, Rodrigues A, et al. Oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement 2010;6:S503-4.
25. Rikans LE, Hornbrook KR. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging. Biochim Biophys 1997;1362:116-27.
26. Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA. First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria J Med 2018;54:287-93.
27. Wagle N, Nagarjuna S, Sudheer A, Roopesh C, Sapkota HP, Bahadur N, et al. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce in Wistar rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:471-9.
28. Purushothaman BP, Valsan G, Kuttan R. Oxycarotenoid lutein reverses the toxicity induced by carbofuran in wistar rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:10-5.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.