SELFâ€“MEDICATION AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS WITH ANTIBIOTICS: LOOKING BEYOND THE KNOWN
Introduction: Though self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a potential contributor to resistance among pathogenic organisms to antibiotics, very few studies have evaluated pattern and prevalence of SMA among dental students.
Objective: The study was conducted to compare features of practice of SMA among second year undergraduate dental students and BDS students pursuing internship (interns) of a North Indian dental college.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous, descriptive study with a six-month illness recall. Dental undergraduate students were administered a questionnaire consisting of both open and close-ended questions regarding various aspects of self- medication with antibiotics. The students were categorized into two groups for the comparative study. Group 1 comprised BDS second year students who were unexposed to pharmacology subject and Group 2 comprised interns possessing a sound knowledge of pharmacology. Written informed consent was taken from all the participants. Comparison between the two groups was done by chi-square test.
Results: A total of 150 respondents participated in the study. 51.3% (n=39) students in group1 and 74.3% (n=55) students in group 2 had self-medicated in the last six months, the antibiotics most commonly used being amoxicillin (53.8%vs.29.1)and azithromycin (34.5%vs.28.2%).The most common indications for SMA includedÂ common-cold, cough and sore throat, fever and diarrhea. Most of the respondents procured antibiotics from pharmacies (68.4% vs.85.1%) after consulting previous prescription or parents.
Â Conclusion: SMA was significantly higher and inappropriate in the senior dental undergraduate cohort compared to the junior cohort, calling for effective interventional strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, dental students, self-medication
The role of the pharmacist in self-care and self-medication. [ cited 2013 Jul 10]. Available from www.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf.
Franco JA, Pecci C. Self-medication, the new silence epidemic. Studies in patients of clinical practice and mental health. Vertex 2007; 18: 344-53.
Badiger S, Kundapur R, Jain A, Kumar A, Pattanshetty S, Thakolkaran N, et al. Self-medication patterns among medical students in South India. Australas Med J 2012; 5:217-20.
Ibrahim OM, Saber-Ayad M. Antibiotics misuse in different hospital wards (a pilot study in an Egyptian hospital). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012; 5: 95-7.
Sontakke SD, Bajait CS, Pimpalkhute SA, Jaiswal KM, Jaiswal SR. Comparative study of evaluation of self-medication practices in first and third year medical students. Int J Biol Med Res 2011; 2: 561-4.
Aditya S. Self-medication among dental undergraduate students: A growing concern. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4:1460-5.
Saurabh MK, Biswas NK, Yadav AK, Singhai A, Saurabh A. Study of prescribing habits and assessment of rational use of drugs among doctors of primary healthcare facilities. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011; 4:102-5.
Olofsson SK, Cars O. Optimizing drug exposure to minimize selection of antibiotic resistance. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: S129-S136.
Dryden MS, Cooke J, Davey P. Antibiotic stewardship-more education and regulation not more availability? J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 64:885-8.
Skliros E, Merkouris P, Papazafiropoulou A, Gikas A, Matzouranis G, Papafragos C, et al. Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study. BMC Family Practice 2010; 11: 58.
Widayati A, Suryawati S, de Crespigny C, Hiller JE. Self-medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia: a cross-sectional population based survey.BMC Res Notes 2011; 4: 491.
Reeves DS, Finch RG, Bax RP, Davey PG, Po AL, Lingam G, et al. Self-medication of antibacterials without prescription (also called 'over-the-counter' use). A report of a Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999; 44:163-77.
Abubakar I, Zignol M, Falzon D, Raviglione M, Ditiu L, Masham S, et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13:529-39.
Onanuga A, Temedie TC. Multidrug-resistant intestinal staphylococcus among self-medicated healthy adults in Amassoma, South-South Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr 2011; 29: 446â€“53.
Rabin AS, Kuchukhidze G, Sanikidze E, Kempker RR, Blumberg HM. Prescribed and self-medication use increase delays in diagnosis of tuberculosis in the country of Georgia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013; 17: 214-20.
Bhanwra S. A study of non-prescription usage of antibiotics in the upper respiratory tract infection in the urban population. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2013; 4:62-4.
Ali AN, Kai JT, Keat C, Dhanaraj SA. Self-medication practices among health care professionals in a Private University, Malaysia. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 2012; 1: 302-10.
Buke C, Hosgor-Limoncu M, Ermertcan S, Ciceklioglu M, Tuncel M, KÃ¶se T, et al. Irrational use of antibiotics among university students. J Infect 2005; 51:135-9.
Khan RA. Self-medication with antibiotics: Practices among Pakistani students in Sweden and Finland. [Thesis] PA 240, SÃ¶dertÃ¶rn University College, Stockholm; 2011. [cited 2013 Jul 10]. Available from:sh.divaportal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:452461.
Osemene KP, Lamikanra A. A study of the prevalence of self-medication practice among university students in Southwestern Nigeria. Tropical J Pharmaceutical Res 2012; 11: 683-9.
James H, Handu SS, Khaja KA, Sequeira RP. Influence of medical training on self-medication by students. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 46:23-9.
Sarahroodi S, Arzi A. Self-medication with antibiotics, is it a problem among Iranian college students in Tehran? J Biol Sci 2009; 9:829-32.
Donkor ES, Tetteh-Quarcoo PB, Nartey P, Agyeman IO. Self-medication with antibiotics among tertiary level students in Accra, Ghana: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012; 9:3519-29.
Montgomery AJ, Bradley C, Rochfort A, Panagopoulou E. A review of self-medication in physicians and medical students. Occup Med (Lond.) 2011; 61: 490-7.
25.Grigoryan L, Burgerhof JGM, Degener JE, Deschepper R, Lundborg CS, Monnet DL, et al. Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in Europe: the impact of beliefs, country wealth and the healthcare system. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 61:1172-9.
Oxtoby K. Doctors' self prescribing. BMJ Careers 2012. [cited 2013 Aug 13].Available from careers.bmj.com/careers/advice/view-article.html?id=20006142â€Ž.
Askarian M, Maharlouie N. Irrational Antibiotic Use among Secondary School Teachers and University Faculty Members in Shiraz, Iran. Int J Prev Med 2012; 3: 839â€“45.
Mohanna M. Self-medication with antibiotics in children in Sanaâ€™a City, Yemen. Oman Med J 2010; 25: 41â€“3.
Ehigiator O, CC Azodo, Ehikhamenor EE. Self-medication with antibiotics among dental students. Tanzan Dent J 2010; 16: 48-54.
Verma RK, Mohan L, Pandey M. Evaluation of self-medication among professional students in North India. Proper statutory drug control must be implemented. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010; 3: 60-4.
Pan H, Cui B, Zhang D, Law F, Farrar J, Ba-thein W. Prior knowledge, older age, and higher allowance are risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics among university students in southern China. PLos One 2012; 7: e41314.
Mainous AG 3rd, Everett CJ, Post RE, Diaz VA, Hueston WJ. Availability of antibiotics for purchase without a prescription on the internet. Ann Fam Med 2009; 7: 431â€“5.
Shehadeh M, Suaifan G, Darwish RM, Wazaif M, Zaru L, Aljafari S, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics use and misuse among adults in the community of Jordan. A pilot study. Saudi Pharmaceutical J 2012; 20:125-33.
34. Mainous AG 3rd, Diaz VA, Carnemolla M. A community intervention to decrease antibiotics used for self-medication among Latino adults. Ann Fam Med 2009; 7:520-6.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.