• SOMA SARKAR Department of Microbiology, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India,
  • DIPANKAR SARKAR Internist and Intensivist, ICU Incharge, Columbia Asia Hospital, Salt-lake, Kolkata, West Bengal, India,
  • ANJUM NAMHATA Department of Microbiology, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India,
  • MANIDEEPA SENGUPTA Department of Microbiology, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.


Objective: The objective of the study was to see the in vitro activity of arbekacin, a novel aminoglycoside, against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) so that it can become a good alternative as empirical treatment for severe sepsis.

Methods: Identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing of the GNB isolated from the clinical samples were done using the VITEK-II system in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata. MDR and XDR strains were selected by their definitions and molecular characterization was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of arbekacin was detected by the E-test strip and compared with other aminoglycosides.

Results: A total of 140 drug-resistant strains including ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing GNB were selected for the study. Arbekacin showed reduced values of MIC50 and MIC90 compared to other aminoglycosides for most of the drug-resistant GNB.

Conclusion: Hence, in this drug-resistant era, arbekacin with the advantage of a single daily dose can be used as an empirical choice in severe sepsis as monotherapy or in combination with other antibiotics such as colistin or polymyxin to fight against MDR and XDR bugs.

Keywords: Aminoglycoside, Arbekacin, Gram-negative bacilli, Multidrug resistant, Extensively drug resistant


1. Dixit A, Kumar N, Kumar S, Trigun V. Antimicrobial resistance: Progress in the decade since emergence of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase in India. Indian J Community Med 2019;44:4-8.
2. Shamsuzzaman SM. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Bacteria and antimicrobial therapy in combination. Bangladesh J Med Microbiol 2015;9:1-2.
3. Savoia D. New antimicrobial approaches: Reuse of old drugs. Curr Drug Targets 2016;17:731-8.
4. Tanaka N, Matsunaga K, Hirata A, Matsuhisa Y, Nishimura T. Mechanism of action of habekacin, a novel amino acid containing aminoglycoside antibiotic. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983;24:797-802.
5. Panchal G, Pandit R, Trailokya A, Sharma A. Arbekacin-a novel antibiotic for critical infections. J Assoc Physicians India 2019;67:93-7.
6. Kondo S. Development of arbekacin and synthesis of new derivatives stable to enzymatic modifications by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Jpn J Antibiot 1994;47:561-74.
7. Hotta K, Kondo S. Kanamycin and its derivative, arbekacin: Significance and impact. J Antibiot 2018;71:417-24.
8. Matsumoto T. Arbekacin: Another novel agent for treating infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens. Clin Pharmacol 2014;6:139-48.
9. Matsuhashi Y, Yamamoto H. The enzymatic mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in methicillin-cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Jpn J Antibiot 1988;41:523-9.
10. Aoki Y. Bactericidal activity of arbekacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Comparison with that of vancomycin. Jpn J Antibiot 1994;47:640-6.
11. Sato R, Tanigawara Y, Kaku M, Aikawa N, Shimizu K. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of arbekacin for treatment of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:3763-9.
12. Watanabe T, Ohashi K, Matsui K, Kubota T. Comparative studies of the bactericidal, morphological and post-antibiotic effects of arbekacin and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;39:471-6.
13. Lee J, Kim CK, Roh KH, Lee H, Yum JH, Yong D, et al. In vitro activity of arbekacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species and gram-negative bacilli. Korean J Lab Med 2007;27:292-7.
14. Zapor MJ, Barber M, Summers A, Miller GH, Feeney LA, Eberly LE, et al. In vitro activity of the aminoglycoside antibiotic arbekacin against Acinetobacter baumannii calcoaceticus isolated from war-wounded patients at Walter reed army medical center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;54:3015-7.
15. Araoka H, Baba M, Tateda K, Ishii Y, Oguri T, Okuzumi K, et al. In vitro combination effects of aztreonam and aminoglycoside against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 2012;65:84-7.
16. Watanabe A, Yanagihara K, Matsumoto T, Kohno S, Aoki N, Oguri T, et al. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese society of chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases, and Japanese society for clinical microbiology in 2009: General view of the pathogens’antibacterial susceptibility. J Infect Chemother 2012;18:609-20.
17. Kazuno Y, Tsuneta S, Tamra A, Shiraishi S, Takada H, Kasai T, et al. Bactriological evaluation of a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, HBK. Chemotherapy 1986;34:61-71.
18. Funatsu Y, Hasegawa N, Fujiwara H, Namkoong H, Asami T, Tasaka S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of arbekacin in bronchial epithelial lining fluid of healthy volunteers. J Infect Chemother 2014;20:607-11.
19. Okada K, Kimura T, Mikamo H, Kasahara K, Seki M, Takakura S,et al. Clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring of arbekacin: A consensus review of the Japanese society of chemotherapy and the Japanese society of therapeutic drug monitoring. J Infect Chemother 2014;20:1-5.
20. Negita K, Yamashita M, Kubota T, Sugiura Y, Miura T, Katsumi A, et al. Study on therapeutic drug monitoring of arbekacin in patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its efficacy. Jpn J Pharm Health Care Sci 2001;27:123-31.
98 Views | 118 Downloads
How to Cite
SARKAR, S., D. SARKAR, A. NAMHATA, and M. SENGUPTA. “ARBEKACIN – A RAY OF HOPE TO FIGHT AGAINST MDR AND XDR GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN A SCIENTIFIC AND COST-EFFECTIVE WAY IN INDIAN SCENARIO”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 5, May 2020, pp. 121-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i5.37069.
Original Article(s)