• MADHUMITA GHOSH DASTIDAR Department of Microbiology, Vijaya College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • NIVEDITHA BS Department of Microbiology, Vijaya College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
  • POOJA R Department of Microbiology, Vijaya College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.


Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) synthesized from plant source of biofilm-forming bacteria.

Methods: FeNPs were synthesized from Pongamia pinnata leaf extracts and it was characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The synthesized FeNPs were evaluated against biofilm-forming Gram-negative Pseudomonas, sewage organisms, and Gram-positive hay Bacillus, Bacillus subtilis. These biofilm-forming microorganisms were evaluated for antibiotic sensitivity. The extracellular and intracellular proteins of biofilm-forming bacteria were estimated in the presence of FeNPs.

Results: All these biofilm-forming microorganisms were found to be antibiotic resistant. The green FeNPs showed potential antimicrobial effectiveness against hay Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas and sewage bacteria. These nanoparticles inhibited the intracellular protein formation more than extracellular proteins of biofilm-forming microorganisms.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the FeNPs synthesized from plant sources were effectively inhibited the biofilm-forming microorganisms by obstructing the intracellular protein synthesis. These nanoparticles can be used as an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and alternative molecule to treat the antibiotic-resistant biofilm-forming microorganisms.

Keywords: Biofilm, Iron Nanoparticles, Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis


1. Seil JT, Webster TJ. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: Methods and literature. Int J Nanomedicine 2012;7:2767-81.
2. Koper OB, Klabunde JS, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ, Stoimenov P, Bohra L. Nanoscale powders and formulations with biocidal activity toward spores and vegetative cells of bacillus species, viruses, and toxins. Curr Microbiol 2002;44:49-55.
3. Kobayashi K, Ikemoto Y. Biofilm-associated toxin and extracellular protease cooperatively suppress competitors in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. PLoS Genet 2019;15:e1008232.
4. Maice F, María C, Carlos C. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Eucalyptus Robusta Sm and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Mater Sci Energy Technol 2020;3:97-103.
5. Kavitha KS, Syed B, Rakshith D, Kavitha HU, Rao HC, Harini B, et al. Plants as green source towards synthesis of nanoparticles. Int Res J Biol Sci 2013;2:66-76.
6. Kirubha A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis plant extract and their antibacterial activity. Int J Nanomater Biostruct 2012;2:30-3.
7. Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: Survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:167.
8. McLean RJ, Bates CL, Barnes MB, McGowin CL. Aron GM. Methods of studying biofilms. Microb Biofilms 2004;14:379-413.
9. Michael O. Staphylococcal biofilms. In: Bacterial Biofilms. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer; 2008. p. 207-28.
10. Turk R, Singh A, Rousseau J, Weese, JS. In vitro evaluation of dispersinb on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Biofilm. Vet Microbiol 2013;166:576-9.
11. Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P. Bacterial biofilms: From the natural environment to infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2004;2:95-108.
12. Ponnusamy P, Natarajan V, Sevanan M. In vitro biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012;5:210-3.
13. Chai FP, Kasing A, Jennifer J, Lesley MB, Lela S, Hashimatul FH. Microtitre plate assay for the quantification of biofilm formation by pathogenic Leptospira. Res J Microbiol 2017;12:146-53.
14. Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist CG. Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:13611-4.
15. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
16. Stepanovi? S, Vukovi? D, Hola V, Bonaventura G, Djuki? S, Cirkovi? I, et al. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: Overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci. APMIS 2007;115:891-9.
17. Shukla SK, Rao TS. Calcium-mediated modulation of staphylococcal bacterial biofilms. Indian J Geomar Sci 2014;43:2107.
18. Mah TF, O’Toole GA. Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents. Trends Microbiol 2001;9:34-9.
19. Shakeel A, Mohammad O, Rukhsana S, Anish K. Antibacterial activity of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation technology against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pol J Chem Technol 2017;19:110-5.
20. Prabhu YT, Venkateswara KR, Kumari BS, Sesha SK, Tambur P. Synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and its antibacterial application. Int Nano Lett 2015;5:85-92.
21. Goswami S, Thiyagarajan D, Das G, Ramesh A. Biocompatible nanocarrier fortified with a dipyridinium-based amphiphile for eradication of biofilm. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014;6:16384-94.
22. Nguyen XT, Pham HL, Ngo TT, Phong XO. Preparation of oral curcumin delivery from 3d-nano-cellulose networks material produced by acetobacter xylinum using optimization technique. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:47-52.
23. Hameed IH, Mohammed GJ, Mohammad JA. Secondary Metabolites Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluation of antibacterial activity. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:304-15.
33 Views | 47 Downloads
How to Cite
GHOSH DASTIDAR, M., N. BS, and P. R. “EFFECTS OF GREEN IRON NANOPARTICLES ON BIOFILM-FORMING BACTERIA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 6, Apr. 2020, pp. 93-97, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i6.37304.
Original Article(s)