TOTAL FLAVONOIDS CONTENT OF SOME SEASONAL FRUITS AND THEIR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Objective: The present study was intended to assess the qualitative and quantitative analysis of some fruits available in Karachi, Pakistan. The association between the intakes of flavonoids enriches fruit and cardiovascular (CV) health was evaluated through a clinical survey.
Methods: The acid-alkaline test was executed in all fruit samples. The total flavonoids content was carried out using aluminum chloride calorimetric method. A cross-sectional survey was executed from July to December 2018 among 100 cardiac patients in Karachi, Pakistan. The patient’s blood pressure was determined and categorized into normal, prehypertension, and hypertension. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-squared test were executed to demonstrate the participants’ sociodemographic information.
Results: The result revealed that the purple grapes contained an abundant amount of total flavonoid contents 192.59±1.28 as compared to green grapes and other fruits, whereas Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Citrus reticulata (kinnow), and Punica granatum (pomegranate) contained 162.96±0.640, 151.85± 0.640, and 107.03±1.28, respectively. Moreover, Malus species, grapes (green), raspberry, and strawberry are also a good source of flavonoids. The clinical survey revealed that the majority of the respondents were male 74% while only 26% were female. The response rate was 73%.
Conclusion: The finding of the present study indicated that dietary intake of fruits containing flavonoids may decrease the risk of CV disease and could contribute to promoting cardiac health.
2. Maaliki D, Shaito AA, Pintus G, El-Yazbi A, Eid AH. Flavonoids in hypertension: A brief review of the underlying mechanisms. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019;45:57-65.
3. Clark JL, Zahradka P, Taylor CG. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure. Nutr Rev 2015;73:799-822.
4. Mendonça RD, Carvalho NC, Martin-Moreno JM, Pimenta AM, Lopes AC, Gea A, et al. Total polyphenol intake, polyphenol subtypes and incidence of cardiovascular disease: The SUN cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2019;29:69-78.
5. Luo Y, Shang P, Li D. Luteolin: A flavonoid that has multiple cardio-protective effects and its molecular mechanisms. Front Pharmacol 2017;8:1-10.
6. Kokkou E, Bozini N, Lavda M, Mourouzis K, Siasos G. The cardioprotective effects of polyphenols: A focus on classic cardiovascular risk factors. Hell J Atheroscler 2017;8:73-95.
7. Imam S, Azhar I, Perveen S, Hussain SG, Mahmood ZA. Studies on in vitro antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of a cream formulation to correlate its anti-aging effect. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:1646-55.
8. Aryal S, Baniya MK, Danekhu K, Kunwar P, Gurung R, Koirala N. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of wild vegetables from Western Nepal. Plants 2019;8:1-12.
9. Nary FC, Santos RD, Laurinavicius AG, Conceicao RD, Carvalho JA. Relevance of prehypertension as a diagnostic category in asymptomatic adults. Einstein 2013;11:303-9.
10. Ponzo V, Goitre I, Fadda M, Gambino R, De Francesco A, Soldati L, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk: A population-based cohort study. J Transl Med 2015;13:1-13.
11. Dower JI, Geleijinse JM, Gijsbers L, Schalwijk C, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Supplementation of pure flavonoids epicatechin and quercetin affects some biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in pre hypertensive adults. A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, cross over trial. J Nutr 2015;145:1459-63.
12. Aptekmann NP, Cesar TB. Long term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipid Health Dis 2013;12:1-10.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.