IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF VITEX DONIANA BY UHPLC/+ESI-QQTOF-MS/MS ANALYSIS

  • AYOKA TO Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Physical Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • NWACHUKWU N Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
  • NNADI CO Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Abstract

Objective: This study evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the dichloromethane (DCM-F) and n-butanol (BUT) fractions of Vitex doniana and identified the bioactive constituents using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis.


Methods: The methanol extract of the leaves was subjected to liquid-liquid fractionation and the BUT soluble separated by vacuum LC (VLC) using binary mixtures of DCM in methanol (1 L) sequentially in the ratios of 9:1 BF1–1:9 BF5. The antioxidant activity was investigated in vitro using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant capacity, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The in vivo antioxidant potential was performed by measuring the concentrations of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury.


Results: The extract, DCM-F, and the VLC sub-fractions showed good antioxidant activity which is comparable with ascorbic acid (53.6%). DCM-F showed the highest antioxidant activity (71.6%), while the least activity was shown by BF5 (15.0%). Peak dereplication of LC-MS chromatograms identified several putative compounds in the BUT soluble. DCM-F caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and Vitamins C and E in CCl4-induced rats compared to standard. The levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde that were elevated in CCl4-induced rats were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) by the DCM-F compared to standard.


Conclusion: The ability of V. doniana leaves to mop up free radicals and reverse the CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats suggests antioxidant potentials. The bioactive compounds identified in BUT fraction could support its ethnomedicinal uses in the treatment of illnesses associated with radical scavenging activity.

Keywords: Vitex doniana, Dereplication, Antioxidant, Phytochemical constituents, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Author Biographies

NWACHUKWU N, Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri.

NNADI CO, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Senior Leturer, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria

References

1. Ibrahim HA, Imama IA, Bello AM, Umar U, Muhammad S, Abdullahi S. The potential of Nigerian medicinal plants as antimalarial agent: A review. Int J Sci Technol 2012;2:600-5.
2. Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 2005;78:431-41.
3. Chinwe U. Bitter herbs of Eastern Nigeria (Gongronema latifolium, Vernonia amygdalina and Vitex doniana): A review. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2018;15:47-56.
4. Sheneni VD, Odiba VA, Omede A, Idih FM. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Vitex doniana in poloxamer induced hyperlipidemia. MOJ Biol Med Res 2018;3:168-73.
5. Agbede JO, Ibitoye AA. Chemical composition of black plum (Vitex doniana): An under-utilized fruit. J Food Agric Environ 2007;5:95-6.
6. Agbafor KN, Nwachukwu N. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant property of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens. Biochem Res Int 2011;2011:1-4.
7. Yakubu OE, Nwodo OF, Imo C, Abdulrahaman M, Uyeh LB. Effects of Vitex doniana leaf extract on aluminium-induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats effects of Vitex doniana leaf extract on aluminium-induced toxicity in male albino Wistar rats. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2016;4:37-40.
8. Ezekwesili CN, Ogbunugafor HA, Ezekwesili-Ofili JO. Anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extracts of Vitex doniana leaves and Cinchona calisaya bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Trop Dis 2012;2:290-300.
9. Tijjani A, Shettima YA, Abdulrahman FI, Khan IZ, Tom GM, Cong LI. Isolation and structural elucidation of 20 hydroxyecdystone from Vitex doniana sweet stem bark (black plum) mustapha. Med Chem 2017;7:828-31.
10. Richard DK, Nvau JB, Chindo IY. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of methanol crude extract of Cyathula prostrata Linn blume. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2017;6:1518-20.
11. Shiqi P. Methods and applications of antioxidant activity assays. In: Pharmaceutical Bioassay: Methods and Applications. United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009. p. 205-18.
12. Phatak RS, Hendre AS. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;2:32-5.
13. Bladt S. Plant Drug Analysis. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 2nd ed., Vol. 49. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 1996. p. 1-6221.
14. Sha’a KK, Oguche S, Watila IM, Ikpa TF. In vitro antimalarial activity of the extracts of Vernonia amygdalina commonly used in traditional medicine in Nigeria. Sci World J 2011;6:5-9.
15. Ajboye TO, Yakubu MT, Salau AK, Oladiji AT, Akanji MA, Okogun JI. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potential ofaqueous extract of Annona senegalensis leaves incarbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular damage. Pharm Biol 2010;48:1361-70.
16. Wu AH. Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 4th ed. United States: W.B. Saunders Company; 2006. p. 1-1857.
17. Wooton ID. Micro-analysis in Medical Biochemistry. 4th ed. London: Churchill-Livingstone, Longman Group; 1974. p. 307.
18. Hadwan MH. New Method for assessment of serum catalase activity. Indian J Sci Technol 2016;9:1-5.
19. Robitaille L, Hoffer LJ. A simple method for plasma total Vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use. Nutr J 2016;15:1-10.
20. Greaves RF, Woollard GA, Hoad KE, Walmsley TA, Lambro A. Laboratory medicine best practice guideline : Vitamins A, E and the carotenoids in blood. Clin Biochem Rev 2014;35:81-113.
21. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
22. Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH. SPSS for Starters and 2nd Levelers. 2nd ed. Berlin, German: Springer; 2016. p. 75-8.
23. Faria TC, Nascimento CC, Vasconcelos SD, Stephens PR, Saranraj P, Barreto AS, et al. Literature review on the biological effects of Taraxacum officinale plant in therapy. Asian J Pharm Res Dev 2019;7:94-9.
24. Raghuram K, Suvakanta D, Sanjeeb K, Bhaswati C, Sandeep M, Kasturi K, et al. Protective effect of bioactivity guided fractions of Ziziphus jujuba mill. Root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation via inhibiting inflammatory markers and oxidative stress. Front Pharmacol 2016;7:1-13.
25. Yap CY, Aw TC. Liver function tests ( LFTs). Proc Singapore Healthc 2010;19:80-2.
Statistics
39 Views | 35 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
TO, A., N. N, and N. CO. “IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF VITEX DONIANA BY UHPLC/+ESI-QQTOF-MS/MS ANALYSIS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 8, June 2020, pp. 142-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i8.37956.
Section
Original Article(s)