PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF AN IMPORTANT UNANI DRUG BAZR-UL-BANJ (HYOSCYAMUS NIGER LINN.) – REVIEW
Objective: Bazr-ul-Banj syn. Ajwain khurasani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn.) is one of the important drug mentioned in Unani literature. It mentioned by the great Unani philosopher Dioscorides (first century AD) in his treatise Kitab-al-Hashaish. According to Unani philosophy, Bazr-ul-Banj is in third-degree category according to its temperamental nature. H. niger Linn. contains tropane alkaloids in good quantity, mainly hyoscyamine and scopolamine.
Methods: Unani classical literature was searched from recent to past available in different libraries. For phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical studies to prove, the importance computerized databases such as Medline, PubMed, Ovid SP, Google Scholar, and Science-direct were searched. All the information of plant available in Urdu, Persian, Arabic, and studies published abstract were included in the study.
Results: Fourteen Unani books were referred and 18 pharmacological studies were recognized. The action of Bazr-ul-Banj mentioned in Unani classical literature are Hazim (Digestive), Mudammil (Cicatrizant), Mujaffif (Dessicant), Mukhaddir (Anesthetic), Munashshi (Narcotic), Munawwim (Hypnotic), Musakkin (Sedative), Musakkin-e-Alam (Analgesic), Raade (divertive), Qabiz (Astringent), etc., and useful in Amraz-e-asbania (nervous affections), Amraz-e-Raham (uterine spasm and pain), Dard wa Alam (pain), Ikhtelaj-e-Qalb (palpitation), Junoon (mania), Niqras (Gout), Zeequn Nafas (Bronchial asthma), etc. H. niger Linn. showed many pharmacological effects included antimicrobial, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihypertensive, and antidiarrheal activities in different clinical and experimental studies.
Conclusion: This presentation is an attempt to showcase the action, uses mentioned in Unani literature, chemical constituent, and pharmacological and toxicological effects at one place. It may also observe that the drug is having many actions which may be beneficial in cases of COVID-19. It may be concluded this should be tested as adjuvant medicine in cases of COVID-19.
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