OXIDATIVE METABOLISM AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BLOOD IN ATHLETES
Objectives: Monitoring of metabolic status in athletes includes a wide range of different parameters, but not all of them have been fully studied. Thus, the presence of oxidative stress is noted in athletes, but its features are revealed only in fragments. The crystallogenic properties of blood in athletes have not been previously studied.
Methods: The study enrolled a total of 262 athletes (19–29 years old) that are highly qualified in cyclic sports. Furthermore, screening data of apparently healthy non-exercising volunteers of the same age (n=35) were used for control. Blood serum of the athletes and non-exercising volunteers was analyzed for 8-isoprostane level, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, activity of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase and reductase. We also studied the level α- and β-carotenes, α- and γ-tocopherols, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Crystallogenic properties of blood serum were tested with own method.
Results: The complex study demonstrated the presence of shifts in oxidative metabolism and blood serum physical and chemical properties induced by professional sports and manifested both in the status of blood pro- and antioxidative systems and in shifts of biofluids crystallogenic activity. At the same time, the obtained data confirmed the development of oxidative stress in qualified athletes.
Conclusion: Our data shown that there are some shifts of oxidative metabolism and crystallogenic properties of blood plasma in professional athletes.
2. American College of Sports Medicine. American college of sports medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41:687-708.
3. Tummala SV, Hartigan DE, Makovicka JL, Patel KA, Chhabra A. 10- year epidemiology of ankle injuries in men’s and women’s collegiate basketball. Orthop J Sports Med 2018;6:2325967118805400.
4. Goodman AD, Etzel C, Raducha JE, Owens BD. Shoulder and elbow injuries in soccer goalkeepers versus field players in the national collegiate athletic association, 2009-2010 through 2013-2014. Phys Sportsmed 2018;46:304-11.
5. Reneker JC, Latham L, McGlawn R, Reneker MR. Effectiveness of kinesiology tape on sports performance abilities in athletes: A systematic review. Phys Ther Sport 2018;31:83-98.
6. Margonis K, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Douroudos I, Chatzinikolaou A, et al. Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: Implications for diagnosis. Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43:901-10.
7. Wagner KH, Reichhold S, Hölzl C, Knasmüller S, Nics L, Meisel M, et al. Well-trained, healthy triathletes experience no adverse health risks regarding oxidative stress and DNA damage by participating in an ultra-endurance event. Toxicology 2010;278:211-6.
8. Halliwell BJ, Cutteridge MC. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.
9. Veskoukis AS, Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Kouretas D. Blood reflects tissue oxidative stress depending on biomarker and tissue studied. Free Radic Biol Med 2009;47:1371-4.
10. Aguiló A, Tauler P, Fuentespina E, Tur JA, Córdova A, Pons A. Antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise. Physiol Behav 2005;84:1-7.
11. Ji L. Oxidative stress during exercise: Implication of antioxidant nutrients. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18:1079-86.
12. Leelarungrayub D, Saidee K, Pothongsunun P, Pratanaphon S, Yankai A, Bloomer RJ. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2011;15:355-62.
13. Morillas-Ruiz JM, García JA, López FJ, Vidal-Guevara ML, Zafrilla P. Effects of polyphenolic antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Clin Nutr 2006;25:444-53.
14. Dreißigacker U, Wendt M, Wittke T, Tsikas D, Maassen N. Positive correlation between plasma nitrite and performance during high-intensive exercise but not oxidative stress in healthy men. Nitric Oxide 2010;23:128-35.
15. Statsenko EA. Characteristics of lipid peroxidation and markers of endogenous intoxication in monitoring physical loads during rower training. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2011;3:41-5.
16. Statsenko EA, Kovkova AV, Nekha? EV. The development of a new marker of the training status in athletes. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012;3:42-5.
17. Martusevich AK, Kamakin NF. Crystallography of biological fluid as a method for evaluating its physicochemical characteristics. Bull Exp Biol Med 2007;143:385-8.
18. Martusevich AK, Peretyagin SP. Modification of blood plasma crystallogenesis with nitrogen oxide processing. Biofizika 2013;58:1038-42.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.