A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON ENHANCED TRANSMISSION AND EFFECTS OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS-2: AN INDIAN SCENARIO

  • KOTTHAPALLI PRASHANTH Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
  • SUMANA K Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
  • SHASHANK M PATIL Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
  • RAMITH RAMU Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in Wuhan city of China has taken the entire world to an appalling situation with its detrimental effects on the mankind. Due to the facts on epidemiological and clinical features, it has become evident that the virus comprises several evolutionary factors that enhance its transmissibility and infection. In the absence of specific treatment options, many of the countries have implemented the confinement at varying levels and restrictions to control further infection. In the context, impact of confinement has affected different sectors including economy, social life, environment, health, and education, By virtue of the interrelated mechanism of functioning, these sectors have been ineffective, which, in turn, has affected the normal human lifestyle. This review emphasizes on such social sectors of India, where public life has been facing detrimental effects. It also highlights the facts that are responsible for the enhanced transmission of the virus. The review was initiated with a literature search using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science, where related keywords were used to collect 259 studies, and 82 of them were finalized based on relevance and information within. It was completed with equal contributions from all the authors in terms of preparing the manuscript.

Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, Transmission, Infection, Social sectors, Health, Education, Economy, Environment

References

1. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.
2. World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-19; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 22].
3. van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, Bestebroer TM, Raj VS, Zaki AM, et al. Genomic characterization of a newly discovered Coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. mBio 2012;3:473-12.
4. Yang P, Wang X. COVID-19: A new challenge for human beings. Cell Mol Immunol 2020;17:555-7.
5. Nadeem MS, Zamzami MA, Choudhry H, Murtaza BN, Kazmi I, Ahmad H, et al. Origin, potential therapeutic targets and treatment for Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Pathogens 2020;9:307-19.
6. Shereen MA, Suliman K, Abeer K, Nadia B, Rabeea S. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human Coronaviruses. J Adv Res 2020;24:91-8.
7. Hui DS, Memish ZA, Zumla A. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vs. The Middle East respiratory syndrome. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2014;20:233-24.
8. Kumari VC, Patil SM, Shirahatti PS, Sujay S, Tejaswini M, Ranganatha LV, et al. The current status and perspectives for the emerging pandemic: COVID-19. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;12:1-12.
9. Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging Coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol 2020;92:418-23.
10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: Increased Transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https:// www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/RRA-sixth-update- Outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-disease-2019-Covid-19.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 22].
11. Mahalmani VM, Mahendru D, Semwal A, Kaur S, Kaur H, Sarma P, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: A review based on current evidence. Indian J Pharmacol 2020;52:117-9.
12. Patil SM, Kumari VC, Shirahatti PS, Sujay S, Tejaswini M, Ranganath LV, et al. COVID-19 infection: The prospects of pharmacotherapy. Int J Health Allied Sci 2020;9:111-3.
13. Sasmi MB, Jose M, Kuttichira P. Current therapeutic options for Coronavirus disease-2019-a pharmacological review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:42-50.
14. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Update Report No. 24; 2020. Available from: https://www. who.int/docs/default-source/wrindia/situation-report/india-situation-report-24.pdf?sfvrsn=dd1c8402_2. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 14].
15. Mousavizadeh L, Ghasemi S, Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020;20:30082-7.
16. Smith EC, Mark RD. Coronaviruses as DNA wannabes: A new model for the regulation of RNA virus replication fidelity. PLoS Pathog 2013;9:e1003760.
17. Denison MR, Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Eckerle LD, Baric RS. Coronaviruses: An RNA proofreading machine regulates replication fidelity and diversity. RNA Biol 2011;8:270-9.
18. Khailany RA, Safdar M, Ozaslan M. Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2. Gene Rep 2020;16:1-7.
19. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell 2020;181:281-92.
20. Yang D, Leibowitz JL. The structure and functions of Coronavirus genomic 3’ and 5’ ends. Virus Res 2015;206:120-33.
21. Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z. Probable pangolin origin of SARS-CoV-2 associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. Curr Biol 2020;30:1346-51.
22. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med 2020;26:450-2.
23. Graham RL, Baric RS. Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: Mechanisms of Coronavirus cross-species transmission. J Virol 2010;84:3134-46.
24. Guo G, Ye L, Pan K, Chen Y, Xing D, Yan K, et al. New insights of emerging SARS-CoV-2: Epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, clinical treatment, and prevention. Front Cell Dev Biol 2020;8:410.
25. Smith EC, Blanc H, Surdel MC, Vignuzzi M, Denison MR. Coronaviruses lacking exoribonuclease activity are susceptible to lethal mutagenesis: Evidence for proofreading and potential therapeutics. PLoS Pathog 2012;9:e1003565.
26. Viceconte G, Petrosillo N. COVID-19 R0: Magic number or conundrum? Infect Dis Rep 2020;12:8516.
27. Heffernan JM, Smith RJ, Wahl LM. Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio. J R Soc Interface 2005;2:281-93.
28. Lan J, Ge J, Yu J, Shan S, Zhou H, Fan S, et al. Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor. Nature 2020;581:215-20.
29. Wu Y, Wang F, Shen C, Peng W, Li D, Zhao C, et al. A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies block COVID-19 virus binding to its receptor ACE2. Science 2020;368:1274-8.
30. Wang Q, Zhang Y, Wu L, Niu S, Song C, Zhang Z, et al. Structural and functional basis of SARS-CoV-2 entry by using human ACE2. Cell 2020;181:894-904.
31. Chen L, Li X, Chen M, Feng Y, Xiong C. The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiovasc Res 2020;116:1097-100.
32. Alsaadi EA, Jones IM. Membrane binding proteins of coronaviruses. Future Virol 2019;14:275-86.
33. Li F. Receptor recognition mechanisms of Coronaviruses: A decade of structural studies. J Virol 2015;89:1954-64.
34. Dimitrov DS. Virus entry: Molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications. Nat Rev Microbiol 2004;2:109-22.
35. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: An overview of their replication and pathogenesis. In: Maier HJ, Bickerton E, Britton P, editors. Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols. 1st ed., Vol. 1282. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 1-3.
36. Gao Y, Yan L, Huang Y, Liu F, Zhao Y, Cao L, et al. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus. Science 2020;15:779-82.
37. Fantini J, di Scala C, Chahinian H, Yahi N. Structural and molecular modelling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;55:105960.
38. Shang J, Wan Y, Luo C, Ye G, Geng Q, Auerbach A, et al. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020;117:11727-34.
39. Bi Q, Wu Y, Mei S, Ye C, Zou X, Zhang Z, et al. Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:911-9.
40. Gralton J, Tovey ER, McLaws ML, Rawlinson WD. Respiratory virus RNA is detectable in airborne and droplet particles. J Med Virol 2013;85:2151-9.
41. Somsen GA, van Rijn C, Kooij S, Bem RA, Bonn D. Small droplet aerosols in poorly ventilated spaces and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:658-9.
42. Goldman E. Exaggerated risk of transmission of COVID-19 by fomites. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:892-3.
43. Al Huraimel K, Alhosani M, Kunhabdulla S, Stietiya MH. SARS-CoV-2 in the environment: Modes of transmission, early detection and potential role of pollutions. Sci Total Environ 2020;15:140946.
44. Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C, et al. The socio-economic implications of the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. Int J Surg 2020;78:185-93.
45. Chakraborty I, Maity P. COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Sci Total Environ 2020;728:138882.
46. Dhinakaran DD, Kesavan DN. Exports and imports stagnation in India during COVID-19-a review. Acad Leadersh Online J 2020;21:72-90.
47. Choudhari R. COVID 19 pandemic: Mental health challenges of internal migrant workers of India. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;54:102254.
48. Donthu N, Gustafsson A. Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. J Bus Res 2020;117:284-9.
49. Fallon PR, Lucas RE. The impact of changes in job security regulations in India and Zimbabwe. World Bank Econ Rev 1991;5:395-413.
50. Anant TC, Hasan R, Mohapatra P, Nagaraj R, Sasikumar SK. Labor markets in India: issues and perspectives. In: Felipe J, Hasan R, editors. Labor Markets in Asia: Issues and Perspectives. 1st ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2006. p. 205-300.
51. Krishna R. Unemployment in India. Econ Polit Wkly 1973;8:475-84.
52. Lakshminarayanan S. Role of government in public health: Current scenario in India and future scope. J Family Community Med 2011;18:26-30.
53. Ayati N, Saiyarsarai P, Nikfar S. Short and long term impacts of COVID-19 on the pharmaceutical sector. Daru 2020; ???:1-7.
54. Gupta M, Abdelmaksoud A, Jafferany M, Lotti T, Sadoughifar R, Goldust M. COVID-19 and economy. Dermatol Ther 2020;33:e13329.
55. Sardar T, Nadim SS, Rana S, Chattopadhyay J. Assessment of lockdown effect in some states and overall India: A predictive mathematical study on COVID-19 outbreak. Chaos Solitons Fractals 2020;139:110078.
56. CRS. Global Economic Effects of COVID-19; 2020. Available from: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/r46270.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 22].
57. Nagaraj R. Employment and wages in manufacturing industries: Trends, hypothesis and evidence. Econ Polit Wkly 1994;29:177-86.
58. Loades ME, Chatburn E, Higson-Sweeney N, Reynolds S, Shafran R, Brigden A, et al. Rapid systematic review: The impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of children and adolescents in the context of COVID-19. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020; ???:???.
59. Torales J, O’Higgins M, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Ventriglio A. The outbreak of COVID-19 Coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020;66:317-20.
60. Brown EE, Kumar S, Rajji TK, Pollock BG, Mulsant BH. Anticipating and mitigating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020;28:712-21.
61. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:2032.
62. Paital B, Das K, Parida SK. Inter nation social lockdown versus medical care against COVID-19, a mild environmental insight with special reference to India. Sci Total Environ 2020;728:138914.
63. Bera B, Bhattacharjee S, Shit PK, Sengupta N, Saha S. Significant impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on urban air pollution in Kolkata (India) and amelioration of environmental health. Environ Dev Sustain 2020; ???:1-28.
64. Mahato S, Pal S, Ghosh KG. Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India. Sci Total Environ 2020;730:139086.
65. Gautam S. The influence of COVID-19 on air quality in India: A boon or inutile. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2020;104:724-6.
66. Kumar S. Effect of meteorological parameters on spread of COVID-19 in India and air quality during lockdown. Sci Total Environ 2020;745:141021.
67. Lokhandwala S, Gautam P. Indirect impact of COVID-19 on environment: A brief study in Indian context. Environ Res 2020;188:109807.
68. Taghrir MH, Akbarialiabad H, Marzaleh MA. Efficacy of mass quarantine as leverage of health system governance during COVID-19 outbreak: A Mini policy review. Arch Iran Med 2020;23:265-7.
69. Ma SM, Hassan S. Assess the awareness and attitude regarding prevention of Coronavirus disease 2019. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:95-8.
70. Kumar SU, Kumar DT, Christopher BP, Doss CGP. The rise and impact of COVID-19 in India. Front Med (Lausanne) 2020;7:250.
71. Dong ZQ, Ma J, Hao YN, Shen XL, Liu F, Gao Y, et al. The social psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical staff in China: A cross-sectional study. Eur Psychiatry 2020;63:e65-72.
72. Krishnakumar B, Rana S. COVID 19 in INDIA: Strategies to combat from combination threat of life and livelihood. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020;53:389-91.
73. Temsah MH, Al-Sohime F, Alamro N, Al-Eyadhy A, Al-Hasan K, Jamal A, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. J Infect Public Health 2020;13:877-82.
74. Maiti R, Bhatia V, Padhy BM, Hota D. Essential medicines: An Indian perspective. Indian J Community Med 2015;40:223-32.
75. Ahmad A, Patel I, Parimilakrishnan S, Mohanta GP, Chung H, Chang J. The role of pharmacoeconomics in current Indian healthcare system. J Res Pharm Pract 2013;2:3-9.
76. Bukhari N, Rasheed H, Nayyer B, Babar Z. Pharmacists at the frontline beating the COVID-19 pandemic. J Pharm Policy Pract 2020;13:8.
77. Alvi M, Gupta M. Learning in times of lockdown: How Covid-19 is affecting education and food security in India. Food Secur 2020; ???:1-4.
78. Dhawan S. Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. J Educ Technol Syst 2020;49:5-22.
79. Kapasia N, Paul P, Roy A, Saha J, Zaveri A, Mallick R, et al. Impact of lockdown on learning status of undergraduate and postgraduate students during COVID-19 pandemic in West Bengal, India. Child Youth Serv Rev 2020;116:105194.
80. Patil A, Rajadhyaksha V. Evolving role of pharmaceutical physicians in the industry: Indian perspective. Perspect Clin Res 2012;3:35-9.
81. Jena PK. Impact of pandemic COVID-19 on education in India. Purakala 2020;31:142-9.
82. Imielski B. The detrimental effect of COVID-19 on subspecialty medical education. Surgery 2020;168:218-9.
Statistics
83 Views | 57 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
PRASHANTH, K., S. K, S. M PATIL, and R. RAMU. “A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON ENHANCED TRANSMISSION AND EFFECTS OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS-2: AN INDIAN SCENARIO”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 11, Sept. 2020, pp. 18-24, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i11.39261.
Section
Review Article(s)