EVALUATION OF NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AZILSARTAN AS MEMORY ENHANCER AGAINST SCOPOLAMINE AND SODIUM NITRITE-INDUCED AMNESIA IN SWISS ALBINO MALE RATS

  • CHANCHAL THAKUR Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • VRISH DHWAJ ASHWLAYAN Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the neuroprotective effect of azilsartan as a memory enhancer against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.


Methods: Albino Swiss male rats in equal numbers per group (n=6) were taken. Scopolamine hydrobromide was administered to induce amnesia within the rats. Control group rats were administered normal, negative control groups were administered with scopolamine to induce amnesia and nitrite during trials, positive control group rats were administered piracetam+ scopolamine and piracetam nitrite during trials, and test control group rats were administered azilsartan +sodium nitrite and azilsartan nitrite. Exteroceptive behavioral models just like the elevated plus-maze model, Morris water maze model, acquisition trials, and retrieval trial were wont to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of azilsartan.


Results: The scopolamine and azilsartan have a significantly decreasing effect on time spent within the target quadrant (TSTQ) but piracetam has an increasing effect. The effect of azilsartan on transfer latency time (TLT) was observed against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats using the elevated plus-maze test. Piracetam was found to decrease the TLT and restore memory function at a better dose. Within the case of scopolamine treated rats, a big increase in TLT was noted. Azilsartan treated group also increased TLT within the elevated plus maze. It is noted that the scopolamine features a significantly increasing effect on escape latency time (ELT). Piracetam features a decreasing effect on ELT. A rise in ELT was seen because of azilsartan.


Conclusion: This study suggested that the azilsartan features a significant decreasing effect on TSTQ, azilsartan treated group also increased TLT and ELT.

Keywords: Transfer latency time, Escape latency time, Time spent within the target quadrant,, Piracetam, Scopolamine, Azilsartan

References

1. Frati P, Kyriakou C, Del Rio A, Marinelli E, Vergallo GM, Zaami S, et al. Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: Revolving doors of cosmetic neurology. Curr Neuropharmacol 2015;13:5-11.
2. Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, Lechevallier N, Lafuma A, Khoshnood B. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the Paquid cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:395-9.
3. Kessler J, Thiel A, Karbe H, Heiss WD. Piracetam improves activated blood flow and facilitates rehabilitation of poststroke aphasic patients. Stroke 2000;31:2112-6.
4. Oyaizu M, Narahashi T. Modulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-channel by the nootropic drug nefiracetam. Brain Res 1999;822:72-9.
5. Garvey DS, Wasicak JT, Decker MW. Novel isoxazoles which interact with brain cholinergic channel receptors have intrinsic cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic activities. J Med Chem 1994;37:1055-9.
6. Tota S. Role of central angiotensin receptors in scopolamine-induced impairment in memory, cerebral blood flow, and cholinergic function. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2012;222:185-202.
7. Hampson RE, Rogers G, Lynch G, Deadwyler SA. Facilitative effects of the ampakine CX516 on short-term memory in rats: Correlations with hippocampal neuronal activity. J Neurosci 1998;18:2748-63.
8. Morris RG. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1984;11:47-60.
9. Sharma AC, Kulkarni SK. Reversal of scopolamineand dizocilpine-induced memory dysfunction by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in rats and mice. Indian J Pharmacol 1992;24:147-53.
10. Okawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
11. Nickerson M. Drugs. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: Macmillan Company; 2013. p. 727-43.
12. Safer DJ, Allen RP. The central effects of scopolamine in man. Biol Psychiatry 1971;3:347-55.
13. D’Hooge R, De Deyn PP. Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Res Rev 2001;36:60-90.
14. Itoh J, Nabeshima T, Kameyama T. Utility of an elevated plus maze for the evaluation of memory in mice: Effects of nootropics, scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1984;101:27-33.
15. Jo YS, Park EH, Kim IH, Park SK, Kim H, Kim HT, et al. The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in spatial memory retrieval under partial-cue conditions. J Neurosci 2007;27:13567-78.
16. Lee AC, Robbins TW, Pickard JD, Owen AM. Asymmetric frontal activation during episodic memory: The effects of stimulus type on encoding and retrieval. Neuropsychologia 2000;38:677-92.
17. Parle M, Singh N. Animal models for testing memory. Asia Pac J Pharmacol 2014;16:101-20.
18. Bhardwaj A, Kumar R, Dabas V, Alam N. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Citrullus lanatus seed extract in Wistar albino rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:135-9.
19. Bhardwaj A, Kumar R, Dabas V, Alam N. Assessment and enhancing adherence to treatment regimen in tuberculosis out patients. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:517-22.
Statistics
12 Views | 27 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
THAKUR, C., and V. D. ASHWLAYAN. “EVALUATION OF NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AZILSARTAN AS MEMORY ENHANCER AGAINST SCOPOLAMINE AND SODIUM NITRITE-INDUCED AMNESIA IN SWISS ALBINO MALE RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 13, no. 11, Sept. 2020, pp. 132-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i11.39327.
Section
Original Article(s)