PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANALGESIC ACTIVITY, AND ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF GAULTHERIA FRAGRANTISSIMA WALL. IN WISTAR RATS
Objective: The present study was undertaken to screen the analgesic and the antidepressant activity of Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. an ethnomedicinal plant of Meghalaya, India.
Methods: In this study, the analgesic effect was induced by hot plate method and tail immersion test. The analgesic effect of two doses of the methanolic extract of Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. was tested and diclofenac was used as a standard drug. The antidepressant activity was brought about by force swimming test and tail suspension test. The antidepressant effect of two doses of the methanolic extract of G. fragrantissima Linn. was tested and imipramine was used as a standard drug. The statistical analysis was carried out by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests using GraphPad InStat 3.0 software.
Results: The analgesic study shows that the plant extract at two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) possesses significant analgesic activity (p<0.01), whereby the two different doses of the plant extract showed a significant increase in the latency time were obtained at 120 min in hot plate method and increase in the latency time were obtained at 90 min in the tail immersion method, respectively. The antidepressant study shows us that the methanolic extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg produced significant reduction (p<0.001) in the immobility period when compared with that of control group animals in both the tests.
Conclusion: The result of the study shows that the methanolic bark extract of G. fragrantissima Wall. possesses analgesic activity and antidepressant activity.
2. Gurib-Fakim A. Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol Aspects Med 2006;27:1-93.
3. Qi FH, Wang ZX, Cai PP, Zhao L, Gao JJ, Kokudo N, et al. Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds: A review of their role on hepatitis B virus infection. Drug Discov Ther 2013;7:212-24.
4. Yuan H, Ma Q, Piao G. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules 2016;21:559.
5. Johan, Instiaty, Nafrialdi, Purwosunu Y. A prospective survey of appropriateness of pain pharmacotherapy management in post-cesarean section patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:280-3.
6. Londhey VA. Pathophysiology of pain. J Assoc Physicians India 2015;63:5-7.
7. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ, Henderson G. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone Publisher; 2012. p. 228-9.
8. Sutar NG, Pal SC. Evalution of analgesic activity of leaf extracts of pergularia daemia [forsk] in experimental animals. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:137-9.
9. Santosh P, Venugopl R, Nilakash AS, Kunjbihari S, Mangala L. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves in mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:112-5.
10. Khushboo, Sharma B. Antidepressants: Mechanism of action, toxicity and possible amelioration. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng 2017;3:437-48.
11. Pamulaparthi A, Prathap VR, Banala M, Nanna RS. Experimental evaluation of antidepressant and antianxiety activities of aqueous leaf extracts of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Using in vitro animal models. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:60-3.
12. Ranyaphi RA. Literature Review on Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. Studies on Propagation and Essential Oil Content in Gaultheria fragrantissma Wall. Doctoral Dissertation. Guwahati, Assam: Gauhati University; 2011. p. 11-3.
13. Liu WR, Qiao WL, Liu Z, Wang XH, Jiang R, Li SY, et al. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics. Molecules 2013;18:12071-108.
14. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Pune: Nirali Prakashan Publisher; 2012. p. 6.3-6.25.
15. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Publishing; 2008. p. 4.
16. Ojewole JO. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2006;28:441-6.
17. Hijazi MA, El-Mallah A, Aboul-Ela M, Ellakany A. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Papaver libanoticum extract in mice: Involvement of opioids receptors. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2017;2017:8935085.
18. Neto AG, Costa JM, Belati CC, Vinhólis AH. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of a crude root extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) pedersen. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:87-91.
19. Suseem SR, Mary Saral A, Neelakanda Reddy P, Marslin G. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of Pleurotus eous mushroom. Asia Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:117-20.
20. Porsolt RD, Anton G, Blavet N, Jalfre M. Behavioural despair in rats: A new model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Eur J Pharmacol 1978;47:379-91.
21. Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1985;85:367-70.
22. Shreedhara CS, Vaidya VP, Vagdevi HM, Latha KP, Muralikrishna KS, Krupanidhi AM. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. For analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Indian J Pharmacol 2009;41:75-9.
23. Narayana KR, Reddy MS, Chaluvadi MR, Krishna DR. Bioflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian J Pharmacol 2001;33:2-16.
24. Ramesh M, Rao YM, Rao AV, Prabhakar MC, Rao CS, Muralidhar N. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid isolated from Caralluma attenuata. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:63-6.
25. Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:693-700.
26. Elisabetsky E, Amador TA, Albuquerque RR, Nunes DS, Carvalho Ado C. Analgesic activity of Psychotria colorata (Willd. ex R. & S.) Muell. Arg. alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;48:77-83.
27. Willner P. The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1984;83:1-16.
28. Lucki I. The forced swimming test as a model for core and component behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. Behav Pharmacol 1997;8:523-32.
29. Priyanka B, Sridhar Y, Shankaraiah P. Antidepressant and muscle relaxant activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Roots in mice. J Adv Pharm Sci 2012;2:193-200.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.