• KAMTA P NIRALA Department of Anatomy, Varun Arjun Medical College, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • AMRITA GUPTA Department of Anatomy, Varun Arjun Medical College, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • SAGUN SHUKLA Department of Anatomy, Varun Arjun Medical College, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • SUBHASH GUPTA Department of Anatomy, Varun Arjun Medical College, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Human Skull, Accessory Supra Orbital Foramen, anatomical, Indian


Objective: This research was aimed at telling the anatomical characteristics of the accessory supraorbital foramen (ASOF) in relation to the main supraorbital foramen (SOF), which is necessary in clinical situations that require regional surgical procedures.

Methods: A total dedicated to the presence and location of 72 dry Indian adults of unknown age and sex were investigated. In each skull, the ASOF location was measured on both sides with a Vernier caliper metal case, with the SOF as the reference point. The total number of accessory foramen was also noted.

Results: Accessory infraorbital foramens (IOFs) were seen only in 4.16% in our study and all seen were single in number. Half of those accessory foramen were present on medial and rest half were present on superomedial position as compared to the main IOF. Half among present accessory foramens were located at a distance of <2 mm and half were located at a distance of more than 2 mm. The mean location of accessory IOF was at 7.07 mm from main IOF.

Conclusion: Knowledge of the anatomical characteristics of ASOF can have major effects on surgical and local anesthetic preparation blockage of the super orbital nerves. Additional guidance for surgeons may be provided with information on the foramens obtained from this study. The surgeons should note this during the nerve block as damage to either branch will lead to sensory impairment and incomplete blocking of the nerve.


Download data is not yet available.


Sicher H, Dubrul EL. Sicher and Dubrul Oral Anatomy. 8th ed. St. Louis: Ishiyaku EuroAmerica Inc.; 1991.

Williams PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dusseck JE, Ferguson MW, editors. Exterior of the skull. In: Gray’s Anatomy. 38th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1995.

Cutright B, Quillopa N, Schubert W. An anthropometric analysis of the key foramina for maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003;61:354-7.

Saylam C, Ozer MA, Ozek C, Gurler T. Anatomical variations of the frontal and supraorbital transcranial passages. J Craniofac Surg 2003;14:10-2.

Beer GM, Putz R, Mager K, Schumacher M, Keil W. Variations of the frontal exit of the supraorbital nerve: An anatomic study. Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;102:334-41.

Canan S, Asim ÖM, Okan B, Ozek C, Alper M. Anatomic variations of the infraorbital foramen. Ann Plast Surg 1999;43:613-7.

Gupta T. Localization of important facial foramina encountered in maxilla -facial surgery. Clin Anat 2008;21:633-40.

Hollinshed WH. The head and neck. In: Anatomy for Surgeons. Philadelphia, PA: Harper and Row; 1982.

Kazkayasi M, Ergin A, Ersoy M, Tekdemir I, Elhan A. Microscopic anatomy of the infraorbital canal, nerve and foramen. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129:692-701.

Standring S, Ellis H, Healy JC, Johnson D, Williams A, Collins P, editors. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 39th ed. London: Elsevier, Churchill Liwingstone; 2005. p. 511-3.

Webster RC, Guant JM, Hamdan US, Fuleihan NS, Giandello PR, Smith RC. Supraorbital and supratrochlear notches and foramina: Anatomical variations and surgical relevance. Laryngoscope 1986;96:311-5.

Huanmanop T, Agthong S, Chentanez V. Surgical anatomy of fissures and foramina in the orbits of Thai adults. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:2383-91.

Guyuron B, Kriegler JS, Davis J, Amini SB. Comprehensive surgical treatment of migraine headaches. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;115:1-9.

Janis JE, Ghavami A, Lemmon JA, Leedy JE, Guyuron B. The anatomy of the corrugator supercilii muscle: Part II. Supraorbital nerve branching patterns Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;121:233-40.

Ashwini LS, Mohandas Rao KG, Saran S, Somayaji SN. Morphological and morphometric analysis of supraorbital foramen and supraorbital notch: A study on dry human skulls. Oman Med J 2012;27:129-33.

Ongeti K, Hassanali J, Ogengo J, Saidi H. Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Eur J Anat 2008;12:89-95.

Berry AC, Berry RJ. Epigenetic variation in the human cranium. J Anat 1967;101:361-79.

Chrcanovic BR, Abreu MH, Custodio AL. A morphometric analysis of supraorbital and infraorbital foramina relative to surgical landmarks. Surg Radiol Anat 2011;33:329-35.



How to Cite

P NIRALA, K., A. GUPTA, S. SHUKLA, and S. GUPTA. “STUDY OF ACCESSORY SUPRAORBITAL FORAMEN IN NORTH INDIAN HUMAN SKULL”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 3, Mar. 2021, pp. 126-9, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i3.39863.



Original Article(s)