FUNCTIONAL FOODS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CANCER
After cardiovascular diseases, in most developed nations cancer is the second leading cause of mortality. Additional to the rising tumor-related behaviors, especially smoking in developing nations, the global prevalence of cancer keeps climbing primarily cos of the aging and expansion of the global population. Lung carcinoma, liver carcinoma, intestinal carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, etc., are the largest global burden of cancer types. More than half of all cases of cancer and mortality are considered preventable globally. There are food components that, beyond basic nutrition, provide health benefits. These functional foods are known to do more than just provide nutrients because they help to sustain health and thereby decrease the risk of disease. In recent times, functional foods have acquired enormous importance for their anticipated visualized involvement in the treatment of various pathologies such as cancer. To see the impact of functional foods on wellbeing or cancer or associated states, there are very few researches performed worldwide. Several functional foods derived from diverse sources, such as plants, animals, and microbial sources, have noticeable anticancer effects. In this review, we show light on the different types of cancers and also highlighted different functional foods that can help in the prevention as well as treatment of different types of carcinoma.
2. Wild CP. The global cancer burden: Necessity is the mother of prevention. Nat Rev Cancer 2019;19:123-4.
3. Cai Z, Liu Q. Understanding the global cancer statistics 2018: Implications for cancer control. Sci China Life Sci 2019;62:9816.
4. Ames BN, Gold LS, Willett WC. The causes and prevention of cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1995;92:5258-65.
5. Alberg AJ, Samet JM. Epidemiology of lung cancer. Chest 2003;123:21-49.
6. Smith RD, Mallath MK. History of the growing burden of cancer in India: From antiquity to the 21st century. J Global Oncol 2019;5:1-15.
7. Danaei G, Hoorn VS, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Ezzati M. Causes of cancer in the world: Comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet 2005;366:1784-93.
8. Urala N, Lahteenmaki L. Consumers changing attitudes towards functional foods. Food Qual Prefer 2007;18:1-12.
9. Urala N, Lahteenmaki L. Attitudes behind consumers willingness to use functional foods. Food Qual Prefer 2004;15:793-803.
10. Roberfroid BM. Prebiotics and probiotics: Are they functional foods. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S; discussion 1688S-90S.
11. Hasler CM. The changing face of functional foods. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19 Suppl 5:499-506.
12. McClements DJ, Decker EA, Park Y, Weiss J. Structural design principles for delivery of bioactive components in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49:577-606.
13. Bech-Larsen T, Grunert KG. The Perceived healthiness of functional food a conjoint study of Danish, Finnish, and American consumers perceptions on functional food. Appetite 2003;40:9-14.
14. Siro I, Kápolna E, Kápolna B, Lugasi A. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance a review. Appetite 2008;51:456-67.
15. Yang Y. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. J Nutr 2008;138:1199-205.
16. Kleef VE, Trijp HC, Luning P. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation. Appetite 2005;44:299-308.
17. Gong X, Li X, Xia Y, Xu J, Li Q, Zhang C, et al. Effects of phytochemicals from plant-based functional foods on hyperlipidemia and their underpinning mechanisms. Trends Food Sci Technol 2020;103:304-20.
18. Smith J, Charter E. Functional Food Product Development. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
19. Sharma R. Breast cancer incidence, mortality and mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) are associated with human development, 1990- 2016: Evidence from global burden of disease study 2016. Breast Cancer 2019;26:428-45.
20. Coughlin SS, Ekwueme DU. Breast cancer as a global health concern. Cancer Epidemiol 2009;33:315-8.
21. Azamjah N, Soltan-Zadeh Y, Zayeri F. Global trend of breast cancer mortality rate: A 25-year study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019;20:2015-20.
22. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:69-90.
23. Gucalp A, Traina TA, Eisner JR, Parker JS, Selitsky SR, Park BH, et al. Male breast cancer: A disease distinct from female breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019;173:37-48.
24. Hussain MS, Mohapatra C. Male breast cancer: Signs, symptoms, and treatment: A review. Int J Creat Res Thoughts 2020;8:553-61.
25. Liu N, Johnson KJ, Ma CX. Male breast cancer: An updated SEER data analysis. Clin Breast Cancer 2018;18:997-1002.
26. Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W, Bandera EV, et al. American cancer society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:30-67.
27. Parkin M, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74-108.
28. Simmonds PD, Best L, George S, Baughan C, Buchanan R, Davis C, et al. Surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: A systematic review. Lancet 2000;356:968-74.
29. Haggar FA, Boushey RP. Colorectal cancer epidemiology: Incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2009;22:191-7.
30. Sung JJ, Lau JY, Goh KL, Leung WK. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in Asia: Implications for screening. Lancet Oncol 2005;6:871-76.
31. Keum N, Giovannucci E. Global burden of colorectal cancer: Emerging trends, risk factors and prevention strategies. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;16:13-32.
32. Center MM, Jemal A, Smith RA, Ward E. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2009;59:366-78.
33. Center MM, Jemal A, Smith RA, Ward E. International trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:1688-94.
34. Newcomb PA, Norfleet RG, Storer BE, Surawicz TS, Marcus PM. Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992;84:1572-5.
35. Hawk ET, Levin B. Colorectal cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:378-91.
36. Sharma P, Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, Kaur S, Gupta G, Singh H, et al. Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer. Chem Biol Interact 2019;309:108720.
37. Wender R, Fontham ET, Barrera E, Colditz GA, Church TR, Ettinger DS, et al. American cancer society lung cancer screening guidelines. CA Cancer J Clin 2013;63:106-17.
38. Spira A, Ettinger DS. Multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:379-92.
39. Minna JD, Roth JA, Gazdar AF. Focus on lung cancer. Cancer Cell 2002;1:49-52.
40. Bade BC, Cruz CS. Lung cancer 2020 epidemiology, etiology, and prevention. Clin Chest Med 2020;41:1-24.
41. Cruz CS, Tanoue LT, Matthay RA. Lung Cancer: Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention. Clin Chest Med 2011;32:605-44.
42. Rawla P, Barsouk A. Epidemiology of gastric cancer: Global trends, risk factors and prevention. Gastroenterol Rev 2019;14:26-38.
43. Yang L, Zheng R, Wang N, Yuan Y, Liu S, Li H, et al. Incidence and mortality of stomach cancer in China, 2014. Chin J Cancer Res 2018;30:291-8.
44. Nomura A, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN, Severson RK. A prospective study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption. Cancer Res 1990;50:627-31.
45. Kono S, Hirohata T. Nutrition and stomach cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 1996;7:41-55.
46. Lee JK, Park BJ, Yoo KY, Ahn YK. Dietary factors and stomach cancer: A case-control study in Korea. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:33-41.
47. Ngoan LT, Mizoue T, Fujino Y, Tokui N, Yoshimura T. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality. Br J Cancer 2002;87:37-42.
48. Balakrishnan M, George R, Sharma A, Graham DY. Changing trends in stomach cancer throughout the world. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2017;19:36.
49. Fu J, Wang H. Precision diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer in China. Cancer Lett 2017;1-6.
50. Petrick JL, Braunlin M, Laversanne M, Valery PC, Bray F, McGlynn KA. International trends in liver cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1978-2007. Int J Cancer 2016;139:1534-45.
51. Sia D, Villanueva A, Friedman SL, Llovet JM. Liver cancer cell of origin, molecular class, and effects on patient prognosis. Gastroenterol 2017;152:745-61.
52. Martel C, Maucort-Boulch D, Plummer M, Franceschi S. Worldwide relative contribution of hepatitis B and C viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol 2015;62:1190-200.
53. Zheng R, Qu C, Zhang S, Zeng H, Sun K, Gu X. Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China: Temporal trends and projections to 2030. Chin J Cancer Res 2018;30:571-9.
54. Joshi S, Song YM, Kim TH, Cho SI. Socio-economic status and the risk of liver cancer mortality: A prospective study in Korean men. Public Health 2008;122:1144-51.
55. Wong MC, Jiang JY, Goggins WB, Liang M, Fang Y, Fung FD. International incidence and mortality trends of liver cancer: A global profile. Sci Rep 2017;7:45846.
56. Kamisawa T, Wood LD, Itoi T, Takaori K. Pancreatic cancer. Lancet 2016;388:73-85.
57. Lowenfels AB. Epidemiology and risk factors for pancreatic Cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006;20:197-209.
58. Kleeff J, Korc M, Apte M, Vecchia CL, Johnson CD, Biankin AV. Pancreatic cancer. Nat Rev Dis 2016;2:16022.
59. Ilic M, Ilic I. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2016;22:9694-705.
60. Vincent A, Herman J, Schulick R, Hruban RH, Goggins M. Pancreatic cancer. Lancet 2011;378:607-20.
61. Maitra A, Hruban RH. Pancreatic Cancer. Annu Rev Pathol 2008;3:157-88.
62. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2020. CA Cancer J Clin 2020;70:7-30.
63. Hidron AI, Edwards JR, Patel J, Horan TC, Sievert DM, Pollock DA, et al. NHSN annual update: Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the national healthcare safety network at the centers for disease control and prevention, 2006-2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:996-1011.
64. Milner JA. Functional foods: the US perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1654-9.
65. Mazza G. Functional Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1998.
66. McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Leu RK, Regester GO, Johnson MA, Grinsted RL, et al. Whey proteins as functional food ingredients. Int Dairy J 1998;8:425-34.
67. Parodi PW. A role for milk proteins and their peptides in cancer prevention. Curr Pharm Des 2007;13:813-28.
68. Kim YI. Folate: A magic bullet or a double-edged sword for colorectal cancer prevention. Gut 2006;55:1387-9.
69. Oomah BD. Flaxseed as a functional food source. J Sci Food Agric 2001;81:889-94.
70. Lyu M, Wang YF, Fan GW, Wang XY, Xu SY, Zhu Y. Balancing herbal medicine and functional food for prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic diseases through modulating gut microbiota. Front Microbiol 2017;8 2146.
71. Shahidi F. Functional foods: Their role in health promotion and disease prevention. J Food Sci 2004;69:146-9.
72. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Bowen PE, Hussain EA, Damayanti-Wood BI, Farnsworth NR. Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: A functional food. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2001;41:251-86.
73. Tu SH, Chen LC, Ho YS. An apple a day to prevent cancer formation: Reducing cancer risk with flavonoids. J Food Drug Anal 2017;25:119-24.
74. Yang KC, Tsai CY, Wang YJ, Wei PL, Lee CH, Chen JH, et al. Apple polyphenol phloretin potentiates the anticancer actions of paclitaxel through induction of apoptosis in human hep G2 cells. Mol Carcinog 2009;48:420-31.
75. Yoon H, Liu RH. Effect of selected phytochemicals and apple extracts on NF-?B activation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:3167-73.
76. Yang J, Liu RH. Synergistic effect of apple extracts and quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside combination on antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:8581-6.
77. Kazimierczak R, Hallmann E, Lipowski J, Drela N, Kowalik A, Püssa T, et al. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and naturally fermented beetroot juices from organic and conventional production: Metabolomics, antioxidant levels and anticancer activity. J Sci Food Agric 2014;94:2618-29.
78. Kapadia GJ, Rao GS. Anticancer effects of red beet pigments. In: Red Beet Biotechnology. Boston, MA; Springer; 2013.
79. Zein H, Hashish AE, Ismaiel G. The antioxidant and anticancer activities of Swiss chard and red beetroot leaves. Curr Sci Int 2015;4:491-8.
80. Faria A, Pestana D, Teixeira D, De Freitas V, Mateus N, Calhau C. Blueberry anthocyanins and pyruvic acid adducts: Anticancer properties in breast cancer cell lines. Phytotherapy Res 2010;24:1862-9.
81. Sezer ED, Oktay LM, Karadada? E, Memmedov H, Gunel NS, Sözmen E. Assessing anticancer potential of blueberry flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, and gentisic acid, through oxidative stress and apoptosis parameters on HCT-116 cells. J Med Food 2019;22:1118-26.
82. Baby B, Antony P, Vijayan R. Antioxidant and anticancer properties of berries. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018;58:2491-507.
83. A Johnson S, H Arjmandi B. Evidence for anti-cancer properties of blueberries: A mini-review. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2013;13:1142-8.
84. Hung JY, Hsu YL, Li CT, Ko YC, Ni WC, Huang MS, et al. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:9809-16.
85. Prasad S, Tyagi AK. Ginger and its constituents: Role in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015;2015:142979.
86. Ramakrishnan R. Anticancer properties of Zingiber officinale-Ginger: A review. Int J Med Pharm Sci 2013;3:11-20.
87. Jeena K, Liju VB, Kuttan R. Antitumor and cytotoxic activity of ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:341-4.
88. Wang CZ, Qi LW, Yuan CS. Cancer chemoprevention effects of ginger and its active constituents: potential for new drug discovery. Am J Chin Med 2015;43:1351-63.
89. Castillo-Pichardo L, Rivera-Rivera A, Dharmawardhane S. Potential of grape polyphenols as breast cancer therapeutics. OA Altern Med 2013;1:9.
90. Yoo KM, Kim S, Moon BK, Kim SS, Kim KT, Kim SY, et al. potential inhibitory effect of resveratrol derivative on progression of prostate cancer, Arch Pharm Chem Life Sci 2006;339:238-41.
91. Stuart JA, Robb EL. Bioactive Polyphenols from Wine Grapes. New York: Springer; 2013.
92. Kundu JK, Surh YJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemoprevention with resveratrol. Cancer Prevent Res 2005;10:89-98.
93. Alkhalaf M. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of p53 and inhibition of protein translation in T47D human breast cancer cells. Pharmacology 2007;80:134-43.
94. Ma L, Chen H, Dong P, Lu X. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Food Chem 2013;139:503-8.
95. Friedman M. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans. Foods 2016;5:80.
96. Ivanova TS, Krupodorova TA, Barshteyn VY, Artamonova AB, Shlyakhovenko VA. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin. Exp Oncol 2014;36:58-66.
97. Khan MA, Tania M, Zhang D, Chen H. Cordyceps mushroom: A potent anticancer nutraceutical. Open Nutraceutical J 2010;3:179-83.
98. Alpsoy S, Uygur R, Aktas C, Topcu B, Kanter M, Erboga M, et al. The effects of onion (Allium cepa) extract on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in aortic endothelial cells. J Appl Toxicol 2013;33:364-9.
99. Saha D. Onion: Anti-cancer sulfur compounds with high cancer chemo prevention potentials. Sci Technol Arts Res J 2013;2:1-2.
100. Xiao H, Parkin KL. Isolation and identification of potential cancer chemopreventive agents from methanolic extracts of green onion (Allium cepa). Phytochemistry 2007;68:1059-67.
101. Kucuk O. Cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2002;21:189-97.
102. Ma ZF, Ahmad J, Zhang H, Khan I, Muhammad S. Evaluation of phytochemical and medicinal properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as a potential functional food. S Afr J Bot 2020;129:40-6.
103. Goyal A, Sharma V, Upadhyay N, Gill S, Sihag M. Flax and flaxseed oil: An ancient medicine and modern functional food. J Food Sci Technol 2014;51:1633-53.
104. Lattanzio V, Kroon PA, Linsalata V, Cardinali A. Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. J Funct Foods 2009;1:131-44.
105. Gul K, Yousuf B, Singh AK, Singh P, Wani AA. Rice bran: Nutritional values and its emerging potential for development of functional food a review. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 2015;6:24-30.
106. DeLuca JA, Garcia-Villatoro EL, Allred CD. Flaxseed bioactive compounds and colorectal cancer prevention. Curr Oncol Rep 2018;20:59.
107. Anjum S, Sundaram S, Rai GK. Nutraceutical application and value addition of banana (Musa paradisica L. Variety “Bhusawal Keli”) Peel: A review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:81-85.
108. Galasso C, Gentile A, Orefice I, Ianora A, Bruno A, Noonan DM, et al. Microalgal derivatives as potential nutraceutical and food supplements for human health: A focus on cancer prevention and interception. Nutrients 2019;11:1226.
109. Jew S, AbuMweis SS, Jones PJ. Evolution of the human diet: Linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention. J Med Food 2009;12:925-34.
110. Asgary S, Rastqar A, Keshvari M. Functional food and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment: A review. J Am Coll Nutr 2018;37:429-55.
111. Zeng YW, Yang JZ, Pu XY, Du J, Yang T, Yang SM, et al. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:1585-92.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.