Nirmala Nimi



Activated carbons are widely used as adsorbents for the removal of organic chemicals and metal ions of environmental or economic concern from air,
gases, potable water and wastewater. Dairy industry is one of the major agro-based industries, which involves processing of raw milk to consumer
products. The objective of the present work is to synthesize and characterize activated carbon adsorbents from the selected raw materials, through
pyrolysis assisted by chemical activation, for odor removal by adsorption of organic matter from dairy waste water. For this purpose, Pongamia
seeds and food waste were selected as precursor materials. Commercial charcoal was also used as a reference adsorbent. The carbon produced by
pyrolysis of Pongamia seeds and food waste are chemically activated with various activating agents, namely zinc chloride and potassium hydroxide.
Characterization tests were carried out for the activated carbon as well as for the effluent sample. Adsorption studies of the dairy effluent samples were
carried out using the prepared activated carbon for biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand control. Activated carbon prepared from
food waste activated by zinc chloride and Pongamia seed coats activated by potassium hydroxide having lower density, higher volatile matter content,
lower ash content and lower moisture content showed favourable characterization results in comparison with commercial grade activated carbon.
Hence, it is concluded that activated adsorbents synthesized from food waste and Pongamia seed coats can be considered as effective replacements
for commercial activated carbon for dairy waste treatment as they are also cost-effective and environment friendly.

Keywords: Dairy waste water, Chemical oxygen demand, Biological oxygen demand, Food waste, Pongamia pinnata, Activated carbon, Adsorption,
Odour removal.

| PDF |


Ansari R., and Mohammad- Khah, Activated Charcoal: Preparation, characterization and Applications : A review article, International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.1, Oct-Dec 2009, No.4, pp 859-864

McDougall G.J., The physical nature and manufacture of activated Carbon, J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metal., vol. 91, Apr. 1991, no. 4., pp 450-471

Ami Cobb, Dr. Edwin P. Maurer, Mikell Warms, Dr. Steven Chiesa, Low-Tech Coconut Shell Activated Charcoal Production, International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering, Vol. 7, Spring 2012, No. 1, pp. 93-104

Ani F.N. and Che Adnan, W. B. Wan Nik, Yusof M., Production of Activated Carbon from Palm Oil Shell Waste and Its Adsorption Characteristics, Journal of Natural Resources Engineering & Technology, vol 67, July 2006, no. 2, pp 45-72

Agnese M., Guzman C., Martinez M.L., Moiraghi L., Making and some properties of activated carbon produced from agricultural industrial residues from argentina, The journal of Argentine Chemical Society, Vol- 91, N 4/6, 2003, pp 103-108

Al-Qodah and Shawabkah R., Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 01, January - March, 2009, pp. 127 – 136

Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ali, Ilias Saeed, Mohammed Rahman, Activated nano carbon containing activated nanocarbon, as well as methods for their preparation, Journal of environmental engineering and sciences, vol 3, 2004, no 1, pp 203-211

Jitendra Kumar Singh, Rahul L. Meshram and Ramteke D.S., Production of Single cell protein and removal of ‘COD’ from dairy waste water, European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, no 3, pp 209-215

European Council of Chemical Manufacturers’ Federation, Test Methods of Activated Carbon, Publishing, 1986, pp 3-28

Dong-Su Kim, Jin-Wha Kima, Myoung-Hoi Sohna, Seung-Man Sohnb and Young-Shik Kwonc, Production of granular activated carbon from waste walnut shell and its adsorption characteristics for Cu2+ ion, Journal of Hazardous Materials,Volume 85,2001, Issue 3, pp 301-31

Baker F. S., Miller C. E., Repic A. J. and Tolles E. D., Activated carbon. Kirk-Othmer Encycolpedia of Chemical Technology, 4, 1992, pp 11015-1037.

El-Hendawy A. A., Influence of HNO3 oxidation on the structured and adsorptive properties of corncob activated carbon. Carbon, 41, 2003, no 2, pp 713-722.

Cerney S., and Smisek M., Active carbon: manufacture, properties and applications, Elsevier: Amsterdam (1970), pp 413-456.

Matinez-Alonso A., Puziy A. M., poddubnaya O. I., Suarez-Garcia F. and Tascon J. M. D., Characterization of synthetic carbon activated with phosphoric acid, applied surface science 200, 2002, no 3, pp 196-202.

Thomas J. M. and Thomas W. J., Principles and practice of heterogeneous catalysis, VCH Verlag sgesell schaft mbH, Weinheim; Federal Republic of Germany, 23, 1974, no 2 , pp 267-275

Abu Baker M. Z., and Srinivasakannan C., Production of activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust, Biomass Bioenergy in press.9, 2005, no 2, pp 234-235

Arabindoo B., Murugesan V., Rengarag S., Seung-Hyeon Moon, and Sivabalan S., Agricultural solid waste for the removal of organics: Adsorption of phenol from water and wastewater by palm seed coat activated carbon, Waste Management, no 22, 2003, pp 543-548

Calafat A., Labady M., and Laine J., Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from coconut shell impregnated with phosphoric acid. Carbon, 27, 1994, no 2, pp 191-195

Gonzalez G. C., Molina-Sobia M., and Rodriguez-Reinoso F., Preparation of activated carbon– sepiolite pellets, Carbon, 39, 1991, no 3, pp 771 – 785.

Lafi W., Production of activated carbon from acrons and olive seed biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 20, 2003, no 1, pp 57-62

Al-Daffaee H., Crosswell N., Elsheikh A., Newman A., and Phull S., Characterization of activated carbon from a single cultivar of Jordanian olive stones by chemical and physicochemical techniques, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, no. 30, 2003, pp 1-16.

Ahmedna M., Marshall W. E. and Rao R. M., Production of granular activated carbons from select agricultural by-products and evaluation of their physical, chemical and adsorption properties. Biosource Technology, 71, 2000, no 1, pp 113-123.

Bhada R., Shawabkeh R., Rockstraw D., Activated carbon feedstock. United States Patent 6225256, pp 1998.

Arabindoo B., Murugesan V., Rengarag S., Seung-Hyeon Moon, and Sivabalan S, Agricultural solid waste for the removal of organics: Adsorption of phenol from water and wastewater by palm seed coat activated carbon. Waste Management, 22, 1998, no 2, pp 543-548.

Alonso A. M., Garcia F. S., and Tascon J. M. D., Porous texture of activated carbons prepared by phosphoric acid activation of apple pulp, Carbon, 39, 2003, no 2, pp 1103-1116.

Arabindoo B., Rengarag S., and Murugesan V., Activated carbon from rubber seed and palm seed coat, preparation and characterization, J. Sci. and Ind. Res., 57, 1996, no 3, pp 129-132.

Denoyel R., Ezzine M., Hannache H., Ichocho S., Legrouri K., Naslain R, Pailler R., Production of activated carbon from a new precursor: Molasses, J. Phys. IV France, 123, 2005, no 1, pp 101-104.

Campbell M., Gola J., Khalili N. R., and Sandi G., Production of micro and mesoporous activated carbon from paper mill sludge, I: Effect of zinc chloride activation, Carbon, 38, 2000, no 2, pp 1905-1915.

Calvo L. F., Garcı´a A. I., Martı´n-Villacorta J., Otero M., and Rozada F., Dye adsorption by sewage sludge-based activated carbons in batch and fixed-bed systems, Bioresour. Technol., 87(3), 2000, no 2, pp 221–230.

Ko D. C. K., McKay, and Mui E. L. K., G. Production of active carbons from waste tyres—a review, Carbon 42(14), 2004, no 1, pp 2789–2805.

Bordson G., Economy J., and Yue Z., Preparation and characterization of NaOH-activated carbons from phenolic resin, J. Mater. Chem, 2006, no. 2, pp 1456–1461.

Lee K. M. & Lim P. E. Treatment of phenolic wastewater using agricultural wastes as an adsorbent in a SBR, Water Sci. Technol, 47(10), 2003, pp 41–47.

Cha´ vez-Guerrero L., Cullen D. A., Mun˜oz-Sandoval E., Rangel-Mendez R., Smith D. J., Terrones H. & Terrones M., Production and detailed characterization of bean husk-based carbon: efficient cadmium (II) removal from aqueous solutions, Water Res, 42(13), 2008, pp 3473–3479.

Diamadopoulos E., Otal E., & Ferna´ ndez-Pereira C, Kalderis D., Koutoulakis D., and Paraskeva P., Adsorption of polluting substances on activated carbons prepared from rice husk and sugarcane bagasse, Chem. Eng. J., 144(1), 1998, pp 42–48

About this article





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 8 Issue 2 (March - April) 2015 Page: 238-241

Print ISSN


Online ISSN


Authors & Affiliations

Nirmala Nimi
Scientific Assistant Centre for Waste Management Sathyabama University

Article Tools

Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)


  • There are currently no refbacks.