EFFICACY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM (WHEATGRASS) AGAINST ARSENIC INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGES
Objective: Arsenic is a metalloid element that is one of the most important global environmental toxicants and is found in both organic and inorganic forms. The present study was designed to find out the preventive role of Triticum aestivum against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Swiss albino mice
Methods: The protective role of T. aestivum (Wheatgrass) against arsenic-induced hepatic damages was investigated in adult Swiss albino mice. The animals were divided in to four groups: (i) Control group – only vehicle (double distilled water), (ii) T. aestivum treated group-20 ml/kg body weight (b.wt.), orally (iii) NaAsO2 treated group- 4.0 mg/kg b.wt., and orally (iv) combination group – T. aestivum leaves extract (20 ml/kg b.wt.) and NaAsO2 (4.0 mg/kg/b.wt.). Bodyweight and liver weight were measured in the process. Activities of marker enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were measured in serum. Activities of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in the liver.
Results: The results indicated that arsenic intoxication caused a decrease in b.wt. and liver weight. Arsenic intoxication significantly increased hepatic LPO, Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) activities whereas significantly decreased hepatic GSH, hepatic LDH, and serum ALP activities. Combined treatment of T. aestivum and NaAsO2 showed: (i) An increase in body and liver weight, (ii) a significant decrease in LPO, SGOT, and SGPT activities, (iii) an elevation in GSH content, LDH, and serum ALP activities, as compared to NaAsO2 treated group.
Conclusion: Thus, T. aestivum was found to be protective against arsenic-induced hepatic damages.
2. Ratnaike RN. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:391-6.3. Jin Y, Xi S, Lu C, Li G, Xu Y, Qu C, et al. Arsenic speciation transported through the placenta from mother mice to their newborn pups. Environ Res 2006;101:349-55.
4. Walvekar RR, Kane SV, Nadkarni MS, Bagwan IN, Chaukar DA, D’Cruz AK. Chronic arsenic poisoning: A global health issue-a report of multiple primary cancers. J Cutan Pathol 2007;34:203-6.
5. Ahmad S, Kitchin KT, Cullen WR. Arsenic species cause a release of ions from ferritin and the generation of activated oxygen. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;382:195-202.
6. Sinha M, Manna PM, Sil PC. Arjunolic acid attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity. Pathophysiology 2008;15:147-56.
7. Chatterjee M, Sil PC. Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2006;43:299-305.
8. Shukla R, Kumar M. Role of panax ginseng as an antioxidant after cadmium-induced hepatic injuries. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:769-73.
9. Hughes DA. Dietary antioxidants and human immune function. Nutr Bull 2000;25:35-41.
10. Mukthi T, Seshamma S, Sailaja N. A mini-review on wheatgrass. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016;4:13-9.
11. Dholi UK. Phytochemical screening and estimation of the nutritional content of wheatgrass powder and wheatgrass juice. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:882-96.
12. Runjala S, Murthy YLN. Product development with wheatgrass and nutrient analysis. Int J Sci Res 2015;5:2319-7064.
13. Husain N, Trak TH, Chauhan D. Wheatgrass: Herbal remedy for health and beauty. Flora Fauna 2017;23:???.
14. Suriyavathana M, Roopavathi I, Vijayan V. Phytochemical characterization of Triticum aestivum (Wheat Grass). J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016;5:283-6.
15. Ferruzzi MG, Bohm V, Courtney PD, Schwartz SJ. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of dietary chlorophyll derivatives determined by radical scavenging and bacterial reverse mutagenesis assays. J Food Sci 2006;67:2589-95.
16. Carter O, Bailey GS, Dashwood RH. The dietary phytochemical chlorophyllin alters E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in human colon cancer cells. J Nutr 2004;134 Suppl 12:34418-48.
17. Negraes PD, Jordao BQ, Vicentini VE, Mantovani VS. Anticlastogenicity of chlorophyllin in the different cell cycle phases in cultured mammalian cells. Mutat Res 2004;557:177-82.
18. Cuendet M, Hostettmann K, Potterat O. Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blumei. Helv Chim Acta 1997;80:1144-52.
19. Arya P, Kumar M. Chemoprevention by Triticum aestivum of mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and croton oil-association with oxidative status. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:143-8.
20. Moron MJ, Depierre JW, Mannlrivik B. Levels of GSH GR and GST activities in rat lungs and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67.
21. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N. Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissue by thio barbuturic acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
22. Wroblewski F. Sigma Technical Bulletin No. 500; 1967.
23. Kind PR, King EJ. Estimation of plasma phosphate by determination of hydrolyzed phenol with anti-pyrine. J Clin Pathol 1954;7:322-6.
24. Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
25. Bourke GJ, Daly LE, Mc Gilvary JC. Interpretation and Uses of Medical Statistics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publication; 1985.
26. Klibet F, Boumendjel A, Khiari M, Feki AE, Abdennour C, Messarah M. Oxidative stress-related liver dysfunction by sodium arsenite: Alleviation by Pistacia lentiscus oil. Pharm Biol 2016;54: 354-63.
27. Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100:249-57.
28. Dhar P, Jaitley M, Kalaivani M, Mehra RD. Preliminary morphological and histochemical changes in rat spinal cord neurons following arsenic ingestion. Neurotoxicology 2005;26:309-20.
29. Neiger RD, Osweiler GD. Effect of subacute low level dietary sodium arsenite on dogs. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1989;13:439-51.
30. Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Patil RD, Tripathi HC. Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: A biochemical and histopathological study in male rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2007;53:667-77.
31. Bashir S, Sharma Y, Irshad M, Gupta SD, Dogra TD. Arsenic-induced cell death in liver and brain of experimental rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;98:38-43.
32. Liu J, Liu Y, Goyer RA, Achanzar W, Waalkes MP. Metallothionein-I/ II null mice are more sensitive than wild-type mice to the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of chronic oral or injected inorganic arsenicals. Toxicol Sci 2000;55:460-7.
33. Arteel GE, Guo L, Schlierf T, Beier JI, Kaiser JP, Chen TS, et al. Subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008;226:128-39.
34. Gaim K, Gebru G, Abba S. The effect of arsenic on liver tissue of experimental animals (fishes and mice)-a review article. Int J Sci Res 2015;5:1-9.
35. Halliwell B, Chirico S. Lipid peroxidation: Its mechanism, measurement and significance. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:715S-25S.
36. Mylonas C, Kouretas D. Lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. In Vivo 1999;13:295-309.
37. Halliwell B. Free radicals and metal ions in health and disease. Proc Nutr Soc 1987;46:13-26.
38. Nieminen AL, Gores GJ, Wray BE, Tanaka Y, Herman B, Lemasters JJ. Calcium dependence of bleb formation and cell death in hepatocytes. Cell Calcium 1988;9:237-46.
39. Kuroda Y, Takeda K, Tabei K, Kuroki M, Yagimuma Y, Ohara T, et al. Role of [Ca2+]i in lethal oxidative injury in rat cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. Pflugers Arch 1995;430:697-704.
40. Xu, M, Rui, D, Yan, Y, Xu S, Niu Q, Feng G, et al. Oxidative damage induced by arsenic in mice or rats: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 2017;176:154-75.
41. Shimizu M, Hochadel JF, Fulmer BA, Waalkes MP. Effect of glutathione depletion and metallothionein gene expression on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and c-myc expression in vitro. Toxicol Sci 1998;45:204-11.
42. Thompson DJ. A chemical hypothesis for arsenic methylation in mammals. Chem Biol Interact 1993;88:89-114.
43. El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Radwan FM. Ameliorating effect of curcumin on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in different rat organs. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;47:249-54.
44. Ramos O, Carrizales L, Yanez L. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103:85-8.
45. Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M. Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Chem Biol Interact 2009;180:20-30.
46. Repetto G, Sanz P, Repetto, M. Comparative in vitro effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate on neuroblastoma cells. Toxicology 1994;92:143-53.
47. Petrick JS, Ayala-Fierro F, Cullen W, Carter DE, Aposhian HV. Monomethyl arsonous acid (MMA (III)) is more toxic than arsenite in chang human hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000;163:203-7.
48. Ayala-Fierro F, Baldwin AL, Wilson LM, Valeski JE, Carter DE. Structural alterations in the rat kidney after acute arsine exposure. Lab Invest 2000;80:87-97.
49. Fischer AB, Buchet JP, Lauwerys RR. Cellular metabolism of arsenic studied in mammalian cells in vitro. Environ Geochem Health 1989;11:87-92.
50. Vandenberghe J. Hepatotoxicology: Mechanisms of liver toxicity and methodological aspects. In: Niesink JM, Vries JD, Hollinger MA, editors. Toxicology: Principle and Applications. ???: ???; 1951. p. 718.
51. Mandal N, Jal S, Mohanapriya K, Khora SS. Assessment of toxicity in puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) from South Indian coast. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;7:2146-56.
52. Hardonk MJ, Koudstaal J. Enzyme Histochemistry as a Link between Biochemistry and Morphology. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer; 1976. p. 40.
53. Modi M, Kaul RK, Kannan GM, Flora SJ. Co-administration of zinc and n-acetylcysteine prevents arsenic-induced tissue oxidative stress in male rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2006;20:197-204.
54. Ramaiah SK. A toxicologist guide to the diagnostic interpretation of hepatic biochemical parameters. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:1551-7.
55. Modi M, Flora SJ. Combined administration of iron and monoisoamyl- DMSA in the treatment of chronic arsenic intoxication in mice. Cell Biol Toxicol 2007;23:429-43.
56. Durairaj V, Hoda M, Shakya G, Babu SP, Rajagopalan R. Phytochemical screening and analysis of antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of wheatgrass. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7S1:S398-404.
57. Jangle N, Padmanabhan P. Evaluation of phytochemicals, reducing power, antioxidant activity and in vitro lipid peroxidation activity of wheat grass juice. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016;7:3436-40.
58. Asokh SA. Phytochemical and pharmacological screening of wheat grass juice (Triticum aestivum L.). Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;9:159-64.
59. Shakya G, Pajaniradje S, Hoda M, Durairaj V, Rajagopalan R. GC-MS analysis, in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic studies of wheatgrass extract. Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2014;7:877-93.
60. Kulkarni SD, Acharya R, Rajurkar NS, Reddy AV. Evaluation of bioaccessibility of some essential trace elements from wheatgrass by in vitro digestion methods. Food Chem 2007;103:681-8.
61. Kulkarni SD, Acharya R, Nair AG, Rajurkar NS, Reddy AV. Determination of elemental concentration profiles in tender wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Food Chem 2006;95:699.
62. Kulkarni, SD. Studies on Tender Wheatgrass: Determination of Elemental Content, their Bioavailability and Antioxidant Activity, Ph.D. Thesis. Maharashtra: University of Pune; 2008.
63. Shakya G, Goud C, Pajaniradje C, Rajagopalan R. Protective role of Wheatgrass on oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm 2012;4:415-23.
64. Bar-Sela G, Cohen M, Ben-Arye E, Epelbaum R. The medical use of wheatgrass: Review of the gap between basic and clinical applications. Mini Rev Med Chem 2015;15:1002-10.
65. Padalia S, Drabu S, Raheja I, Gupta A, Dhamija M, Surajmal M. Review article on multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (green blood): An overview. Chron Young Sci 2010;1:23-8.
66. Chauhan M. A pilot study on wheat grass juice for its phytochemical, nutritional and therapeutic potential on chronic diseases. Int J Chem Stud 2014;2:27-34.
67. Singh N, Verma P, Pandey BR. Therapeutic potential of organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat grass) in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2012;4:10-4.
68. Rana S, Kamboj JK, Gandhi V. Living life the natural way-wheatgrass and health (review article). Funct Foods Health Dis 2011;1:444-56.
69. Jain G, Jain N, Argal A. Wound healing potential of young leaves of Triticum aestivum on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm 2014;6:508-13.
70. Nepali S, Ki HH, Lee JH, Lee HY, Kim DK, Lee YM. Wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide has antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects on LPS-induced hepatic injury in mice. Phytother Res 2017;31:1107-16.
71. Govind P. Medicinal plants against liver diseases. Int J Pharm Res 2011;2:115-21.
72. Suárez B, Álvarez AL, García YD, Barrio G, Lobo AP, Parra F. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro antiviral properties of apple pomace. Food Chem 2010;120:339-42.
73. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Mohajer S, Malek SN. Phytochemical constituents, nutritional values, phenolics, flavonols, flavonoids, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:152.
74. Nimse SB, Pal D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. R Soc Chem 2015;5:27986-8006.
75. Rajoria A, Mehta A, Mehta P, Ahirwal L, Shukla S, Bajpai VK. Evaluation of antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effects of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum). Acta Biol Hung 2017;68:150-61.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.