ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ELEVATED HIGH SENSITIVITY CARDIAC-TROPONIN I LEVELS AND INCREASE IN LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, INTERLEUKIN-6, D-DIMER, AND CONSEQUENT CARDIAC INJURY AND MORTALITY FOR PATIENTS WITH CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019: A META-ANALYSIS

Authors

  • DHEAA SHAMIKH ZAGEER Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • SUNDUS FADHIL HANTOOSH Department of Training and Development, Forensic DNA Center for Research and Training, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • WATHIQ Q SH. ALI Department of Applied Embryology, High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and ART, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i6.41491

Keywords:

High sensitivity-cardiac troponin I, Cardiac injury, C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, D-dimer, Death

Abstract

Objectives: This meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of high sensitivity-cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) as a prognostic factor for cardiac injury and as a risk factor of death for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This meta-analysis studies the impact of hs-cTnI elevated levels on C-reactive protein (C-RP) protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and D-dimer (DD) levels in COVID-19 affected individuals.

Methods: Of 557 downloaded articles according to chosen criteria for this meta-analysis, 11 were finally chosen as they met the criteria.

Results: Male and elderly individuals were noticeably prone to COVID-19 infection and considerably underwent death in comparison with female and young individuals. Levels of hs-cTn I, C-RP, IL-6, and DD were significantly higher among dead compare to survivors for COVID-19 affected individuals.

Conclusions: Levels of C-RP, IL-6, and DD were considerably high and in linear relation with elevated hs-cTn I levels. Hs-cTn I can be considered a reliable marker for COVID-19 infection prognosis and potent predictor of decease.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Hassan S, Sheikh F, Jamal S, Ezch J, Akhtar A. Coronavirus (COVID-19): A review of clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.Cureus 2020;12:e7355.

Barry J, Barth J, Howell S. Cardiac troponins: Their use and relevance in anaesthesia and critical care medicine. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2008;8:62-6.

Salazar J, Martinez M, Chavez-Castillo M, Nunez V, Anez R, Torres Y, et al. C-reactive protein: An in-depth look into structure, function, and regulation. Int Schl Res Notices 2014;2014:653045.

Hunter C, Jones S. IL-6 as a keystone cytokine in health and disease. Nat Immunol 2015;16:448-57.

Yao K, Zhao Y, Xiao X, Wu G, Xie R, Wang Y, et al. Analysis on clinical features of death patients with COVID-19: A retrospective, single-center study from Wuhan, China. Res Square 2020; ???:???.

Weitz J, Fredenburgh J, Eikelboom J. A test in context: D-dimer. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70:2411-20.

Heng G, Mingli Z, Jing D, Yong Z, Wei W, Wei Z, et al. Cardiac structural and functional characteristics in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A serial echocardiographic study. medRxiv. 2020;2020:20095885.

Chen X, Yan L, Zhang C. Laboratory abnormalities and risk factors associated with in-hospital death in patients with severe COVID-19. WILEY. J Clin Lab Anal 2020;34:e23467.

Zhang F, Yang D, Li J, Gao P, Chen T, Cheng Z, et al. Myocardial injury is associated with in-hospital mortality of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A single center retrospective cohort study. medRxiv 2020;2020:20040121.

Lu Y, Huang Z, Wang M, Tang K, Wang S, Gao P, et al. Clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality in young adults with severe COVID-19. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2020 ;???:???.

Shi S, Qin M, Cai Y, Liu T, Shen B, Yang F, et al. Characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2070-9.

Zhang F, Xiong Y, Wei Y, Hu Y, Wang F, Li G, et al. Obesity predisposes to the risk of higher mortality in young COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol 2020;92:2536-42.

Raad M, Dabbagh M, Gorgis S, Yan J, Chehab O, Dagher C, et al. Cardiac injury patterns and inpatient outcomes among patients admitted with COVID-19. Am J Cardiol 2020;133:154-61.

Zhu Q, Zhang W, Wang Q, Liu J, Wu C, Luo T, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcome of 64 patients with severe COVID-19. Chin J Tuberc Respir Med 2020;43:659-64.

Song Y, Gao P, Ran T, Qian H, Guo F, Chang L, et al. High inflammatory burden: A potential cause of myocardial injury in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Front Cardiovasc Med 2020;7:128.

Pan F, Yang L, Li Y, Liang B, Li L, Ye T, et al. Factors associated with death outcome in patients with severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): A case-control study. Int J Med Sci 2020;17:1281-92.

Barman H, Atici A, Sahin I, Alici G, Tekin E, Baycan O, et al. Prognostic significance of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients with and without coronary artery disease. Coronary Artery Dis 2020;2020:1097.

Agrawal H, Das N, Nathani S, Saha S, Saini S, Kakar S, et al. An assessment on impact of COVID-19 infection in a gender specific manner. Stem Cell Rev Rep 2020;17:94-112.

Gagliardi M, Tieri P, Ortona E, Ruggieri, A. ACE2 expression and sex disparity in COVID-19. Cell Death Discov 2020;6:37.

Smith J, Sausville E, Girish V, Yuan M, Vasudevan A, John K, et al. Cigarette smoke exposure and inflammatory signaling increase the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in the respiratory tract. Dev Cell 2020;53:514-29.e3.

Zeng F, Dai C, Cai P, Wang J, Xu L, Li J, et al. A comparison study of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody between male and female COVID-19 patients: A possible reason underlying different outcome between sex. J Med Virol 2020;92:2050-4.

Nguyen L, Ramanathan M, Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Brownscheidle C, Jacobs L. Sex differences in vitro pro-inflammatory cytokine production from peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients. J Neurol Sci 2003;209:93-9.

Kang SJ, Jung SI. Age-related morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Infect Chemother 2020;52:154-64.

Tay MZ, Poh CM, Rénia L, MacAry PA, Ng LFP. The trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nat Rev Immunol 2020;20:363-74.

Ho F, Petermann-Rocha F, Gray S, Jani B, Katikireddi S, Niedzwiedz C, et al. Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? PLoS One 2020;2020:0241824.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.

Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T, et al. Cardiovascular implications of fatal outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol 2020;5:811-8.

Atallah B, Mallah S, Abd elWareth L, Al Mahmeed W, Fonarow G. A marker of systemic inflammation or direct cardiac injury: Should cardiac troponin levels be monitored in COVID-19 patients? Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2020;6:204-7.

Chen H, Li X, Marmar T, Xu Q, Tu J, Li T, et al. Cardiac troponin I associated with poor prognosis and death risk in 726 severe and critical COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Med Sci 2021;18:1474-83.

Ozyilmaz S, Alis E, Ermis E, Allahverdiyev S, Ucar H. Assessment of the relationship between mortality and troponin I levels in hospitalized patients with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Medicina 2020;56:693.

Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, et al. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol 2020;5:802-10.

Hantoosh S, Zageer D, Jaber M. Role of body fat distribution, tan of skin, type of food intake and caffeine intake in infertility for polycystic ovarian syndrome women. Saudi J Med 2017;2:161-71.

Wang Y, Zheng Y, Tong Q, Wang L, Lv G, Xi Z, et al. Cardiac injury and clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Front Cardiovasc Med 2020;7:147.

Yan L, Zhang HT, Goncalves J, Xiao Y, Wang M, Guo Y. An interpretable mortality prediction model for COVID-19 patients. Nat Mach Intell 2020;2:283-8.

Liu X, Shi S, Xiao J, Wang H, Chen L, Li J, et al. Prediction of the severity of corona virus disease 2019 and its adverse clinical outcomes. Jpn J Infect Dis 2020;73:404-10.

Caricchio R, Gallucci M, Dass C, Zhang X, Gallucci S, Fleece D, et al. Preliminary predictive criteria for COVID-19 cytokine storm. Ann Rheum Dis 2020;2020:1-8.

Cummings MJ, Baldwin MR, Abrams D, Jacobson S, Meyer B, Balough E, et al. Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: A prospective cohort study. medRxiv 2020;80:20067157.

Rostamian A, Ghazanfari T, Arabkheradmand J, Edalatifard M, Ghaffarpour S, Saleh M. Iran COVID-19: Immunological study: Remarkable level of interleukin-6 in Iranian COVID-19 hospitalized patients. SSRN Electron J 2020;2020:3571554.

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med 2020;46:846-8.

kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, et al. A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS-coronavirus-induced lung injury. Nat Med 2005;11:875-9.

Gorham J, Moreau A, Corazza F, Peluso L, Ponthieux F, Talamonti M, et al. Interleukin-6 in critically ill COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis. PLoS One 2020;15:e0244628.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1708-20.

Lin Z, Long F, Yang Y, Chen X, Xu L, Yang M. Serum ferritin as an independent risk factor for severity in COVID-19 patients. J Infect 2020;81:647-579.

Hantoosh S, Al Jumaili F, Zageer D. Measurement of serum lipid profile parameters, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid and serum creatinine levels for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Asian J Biochem Genet Mol Biol 2018;1:329639.

Published

29-07-2021

How to Cite

ZAGEER, D. S., S. F. HANTOOSH, and W. Q SH. ALI. “ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ELEVATED HIGH SENSITIVITY CARDIAC-TROPONIN I LEVELS AND INCREASE IN LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, INTERLEUKIN-6, D-DIMER, AND CONSEQUENT CARDIAC INJURY AND MORTALITY FOR PATIENTS WITH CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019: A META-ANALYSIS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 6, July 2021, pp. 160-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i6.41491.

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)