DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TAMARINDUS INDICA STEM BARK EXTRACT AGAINST SELECTED MICROBES
Keywords:Bacteria, Therapeutic, Potency, Antioxidant
Objectives: The present study determines the bioactive constituents in the stem bark of Tamarindus indica and also assesses its biological properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
Methods: The clinical isolates were collected from wounds of patients and cultivated in a nutrient broth. The extract of stem bark of T. indica was added to the bacteria in Muller Hinton ager to test its biological activity.
Results: Crude extracts of T. indica showed potency against S. aureus with the highest zone of inhibition of 19.00 ± 0.60 mm at 200 mg/ml concentration of the extract. The extract showed potency against P. aeruginosa at varying concentrations with a zone of inhibition between 13.5 ± 0.20 mm and 6.25 ± 0.45 mm. However, the extracts of T. indica recorded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 6.25 mg/ml and an minimum bactericidal concentration value of 25 mg/ml against P. aeruginosa and also recorded a MIC value of 3.13 mg/ml against S. aureus. The preliminary analysis of bioactive compounds of the crude extract of T. indica showed that it has a wide range of phytochemical constituents including saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones.
Conclusion: The results suggested that the extract of stem bark of T. indica has the potential of being the best alternative antimicrobial agent use to cure infectious diseases caused by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Uchechukwu UN, Grace EO, Vincent NC, Anthony IO. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity. Int J Mol Sci 2011;12:6385-96.
Abdallah MS, Muhammad A. Antibacterial activity of leaves and fruits extract of Tamarindus indica against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Shigella at Potiskum Yobe state, Nigeria. J Pharm Res 2018;7:606-9.
Nascimento GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extract and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz J Anal Microb 2002;3:247-56.
Asfere Y, Kebede A, Zinabu D. In-vitro antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of selected plant extracts against some medically and agriculturally important pathogens. Eur J Med Plants 2020;31:167-89.
Abdulnabi M, Alarabil FY, Farooqui M, Pradhan V. Phytochemical screening and antiamebic studies of Tamarindus indica of leaves extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:507-12.
Sadiku NA, Gbala ID, Olorunnishola KS, Shittu BA. Bioactivity of Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. and Tamarindus indica L. Extracts against selected pathogenic microbes. Arab J Med Aromatic Plant 2020;6:29-41.
Gupta C, Prakash D, Gupta S. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and its potential as food bio-preservative. IFRJ 2014;21:2437-41.
Yusha’u DM, Gabari NT, Dabo A, Hassan M, Dahiru M. Biological activity and phytochemical constituents of Tamarindus indica stem bark extracts. Sky J Microb Res 2014;9:67-71.
Komutarin T, Azadi S, Butterworth L, Keil D, Chitsomboon B, Suttaji M, et al. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica exhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:649-58.
Escalona-Arranz JC, Peres-Roses R, Laffita IU, Camacho-Pozo MI, Rodriguez-Amado J, Licea-Jimenez I. Antimicrobial activity of extract from Tamarindus indica L. Leaves. Pharmacogn Mag 2010;23:242-7.
Gomathi AC, Rajarathinam SR, Sadiq AM. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Shell. Int J Basic Appl Res 2018;11:2249-3352.
Khanzada SK, Shaikh W, Sofia W, Kazi T, Usmanghani K, Kabir A, et al. Chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica medicinal plant in Sindh. Pakistan J Bot 2008;40:2553-9.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Phytochemistry: Introduction and general methods. In: Pharmacognosy. 11th ed. London, UK: BailliereTindall; 1978. p. 227-47.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide Modern Technique of Plant Analysis.1st ed. London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd.; 1973. p. 49-188.
Harbone JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide in Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 5th ed. London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd.;1998. p. 221-32.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Ninth informational supplement. NCCLS 2008;28;1-13.
Okeke MI, Iroegbu CU, Eze EN, Okoli AS, Esimone CO. Evaluation of extracts of the root of Landolphia owerrience for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;78:119-127.
Donkor AM, Mosobil R, Suurbaar J. In vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of Senna alata, Ricinus communis, and Lannea barteri extract against wound and skin disease-causing Bacteria. J Pharm Res 2016;3:1-6.
Wikaningtyas P, Sukandar EY. The antibacterial activity of selected plants towards resistant bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2016;6:16-9.
Idu M, Osadolo S. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic root extract of Tamarindus indica L. Chem Res J 2020;5:14-23.
Najafi S. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 2013;4:3274-80.
Abdallah MS, Ali M. Antibacterial activity of leaves and fruits extract of Tamarindus indica against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Shigella at potiskum yobe state, Nigeria. J Anal Pharm Res 2018;7:606-9.
Sukandar EY, Sunderam N, Fidrianny I. Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi. Pak J Biol Sci 2014;17:49-55.
Phiri M, Mufwambi W, Mudenda S, Banda M. Antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica fruit extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Int J Biomed Investig 2020;3:1-7.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 James Aboko, Mrs, Mr
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.