• PADMAVATHI R Department of Pharmacology, G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana.
  • SOUMYA G Department of Pharmacology, G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana.



Pre-diabetes, OGTT, Insulin resistance, Horse gram, Fenugreek


Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the combined effect of horse gram (HG) and fenugreek (FG) seed powders in high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced pre-diabetes in rats.

Methods: Wistar rats (140–200 g) of either sex were randomly divided into four groups (n=6). Group 1, normal control, received normal pellet diet; Group 2, pre-diabetic control, received HFHS diet; Group 3, prophylactic group, received HFHS diet along with HG (200 mg/kg) and FG (200 mg/kg) combination; and Group 4, therapeutic group, received HFHS diet for 9 weeks followed by HG (200 mg/kg) and FG (200 mg/kg) combination for 28 days. Fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, and OGTT were carried out on the 9th week in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, and at the end of the study in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 4.

Results: Treatment with HFHS diet for 9 weeks has significantly increased fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles in the pre-diabetic group when compared to the normal control group indicating induction of pre-diabetes in the pre-diabetic group. In the prophylactic group, horse gram and fenugreek are given simultaneously with HFHS has significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles when compared to the pre-diabetic group. In the therapeutic group, treatment was given after induction of pre-diabetes for 28 days. In the therapeutic group, there was a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles compared to the pre-diabetic group.

Conclusion: HFHS diet-induced pre-diabetes or insulin resistance is an effective model to study and evaluate various new therapeutic modalities. The findings of the present study suggest that consumption of FG and HG as food supplements could reduce the risk of getting diabetes and progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes.


Download data is not yet available.


Bansal N. Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: A review. World J Diabetes 2015;6:296-303. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.296, PMID 25789110

Khetan AK, Rajagopalan S. Prediabetes. Can J Cardiol 2018;34:615- 23. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.12.030, PMID 29731022

Deepa M, Grace M, Binukumar B, Pradeepa R, Roopa S, Khan HM, et al. High burden of prediabetes and diabetes in three large cities in South Asia: The center for cardio-metabolic risk reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2015;110:172-82. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.09.005, PMID 26432412

Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Datta M, Sudha V, Unnikrishnan R, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: Phase i results of the Indian council of medical research-India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) study. Diabetologia 2011;54:3022-7. doi: 10.1007/ s00125-011-2291-5, PMID 21959957

Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, Heine RJ, Henry RR, et al. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: Implications for care. Diabetes Care 2007;30:753-9. doi: 10.2337/dc07-9920, PMID 17327355

Cai X, Zhang Y, Li M, Wu JH, Mai L, Li J. Association between prediabetes and risk of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: Updated meta-analysis. BMJ 2020;370:m2297. doi: 10.1136/bmj. m2297, PMID 32669282

Brannick B, Wynn A, Dagogo-Jack S. Prediabetes as a toxic environment for the initiation of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2016;241:1323-31. doi: 10.1177/1535370216654227, PMID 27302176

Boughton CK, Munro N, Whyte M. Targeting beta-cell preservation in the management of Type 2 diabetes. Br J Diabetes 2017;17:134-44. doi: 10.15277/bjd.2017.148

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM. Diabetes prevention program research group. Reduction in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393-403. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa012512

Gaddam A, Galla C, Thummisetti S, Marikanty RK, Palanisamy UD, Rao PV. Role of fenugreek in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in prediabetes. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2015;14:74. doi: 10.1186/ s40200-015-0208-4, PMID 26436069

Ranasinghe R, Ediriweera ER. Medicinal and nutritional values of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc (kulattha): A conceptual study. Glob J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;1:44-53.

Gupta LH, Badole SL, Bodhankar SL, Sabharwal SG. Antidiabetic potential of α-amylase inhibitor from the seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice. Pharm Biol 2011;49:182-9. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2010.507633, PMID 21043992

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/18.6.499, PMID 4337382

Gheni G, Yokoi N, Beppu M, Yamaguchi T, Hidaka S, Kawabata A, et al. Characterization of the prediabetic state in a novel rat model of Type 2 diabetes, the ZFDM rat. J Diabetes Res 2015;2015:261418. doi: 10.1155/2015/261418, PMID 25961052

Gupta P, Kumar P, Nitin K, Pawar Y, Gupta J. Self-nano emulsifying drug delivery system: A strategy to improve oral bioavailability. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:506-12.

Sweazea KL, Lekic M, Walker BR. Comparison of mechanisms involved in impaired vascular reactivity between high sucrose and high fat diets in rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2010;7:48. doi: 10.1186/1743- 7075-7-48, PMID 20525365

Vijayakumar MV, Singh S, Chhipa RR, Bhat MK. The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway. Br J Pharmacol 2005;146:41-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706312, PMID 15980869

Bigoniya P, Bais S, Sirohi B. The effect of Macrotyloma uniflorum seed on bile lithogenicity against diet induced cholelithiasis on mice. Anc Sci Life 2014;33:242-51. doi: 10.4103/0257-7941.147433, PMID 25593405

Zavaroni I, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Studies of the mechanism of fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia in the rat. Metabolism 1982;31:1077-83. doi: 10.1016/0026-0495(82)90155-x, PMID 6752639

Vatandoust N, Rami F, Salehi AR, Khosravi S, Dashti G, Eslami G, et al. Novel high-fat diet formulation and streptozotocin treatment for induction of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in rats. Adv Biomed Res 2018;7:107. doi: 10.4103/abr.abr_8_17, PMID 30069438

Wang Y, Campbell T, Perry B, Beaurepaire C, Qin L. Hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of berberine in high-fat diet-and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metabolism 2011;60:298-305. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2010.02.005, PMID 20304443

Geberemeskel GA, Debebe YG, Nguse NA. Antidiabetic effect of fenugreek seed powder solution (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) on hyperlipidemia in diabetic patients. J Diabetes Res 2019;2019:1-8. doi: 10.1155/2019/8507453

Lalitha N, Sadashivaiah B, Talahalli RR, Singh SA. Lectin rich horsegram protein and myricetin activates insulin signaling-a study targeting PTP1β. J Funct Foods 2020;67. doi: 10.1016/j. jff.2020.103845, PMID 103845

Ramanathan V, Raj DA, Thekkumalai M. Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. improves glucose metabolism and proinflammatory parameters in high fructose fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2019;57:594-601.

Eidi A, Eidi M, Sokhteh M. Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) seeds on serum parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Res 2007;27:728-33. doi: 10.1016/j. nutres.2007.09.006

Chaturvedi P, George S, Milinganyo M, Tripathi YB. Effect of Momordica charantia on lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Phytother Res 2004;18:954-6.

Meikle PJ, Wong G, Barlow CK, Weir JM, Greeve MA, MacIntosh GL, et al. Plasma lipid profiling shows similar associations with prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes. PLoS One 2013;8:e74341. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0074341, PMID 24086336

Motshakeri M, Goh YM, Ebrahimi M. Metabolic effects of high sucrose and saturated oil feeding on insulin resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2015;53:264-72. PMID 26040023

Kumar DS, Prashanthi G, Avasarala H, Banji D. Antihypercholesterolemic effect of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc (Fabaceae) extract on high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Diet Suppl 2013;10:116-28. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.790334, PMID 23725525



How to Cite

R, P., and S. G. “COMBINED EFFECT OF HORSE GRAM AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDERS IN HIGH FAT-HIGH SUCROSE DIET-INDUCED PRE-DIABETES IN RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 15, no. 6, June 2022, pp. 67-70, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2022.v15i6.44252.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)