Vaccination hesitancy, Parents, COVID-19 vaccine, Health personnel, Knowledge, Attitude, Perception


Objectives: There is evidence of morbidity and mortality in children due to COVID-19 infection. “Vaccine Hesitant Parents (VHPs)” may act as barriers to vaccination of children and their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions come into play. Health-care providers are cited as the most important source for vaccine information by VHPs, and provider recommendation for vaccination is crucial for improving vaccine uptake. Hence, we aim to study among Indian health-care professionals having children <18 years of age, the prevalence of parental hesitancy for pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and to assess their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions about pediatric COVID-19 vaccine.

Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted across India through a web-based questionnaire amongst health-care professionals having children less than 18 years of age by Snowball sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to study the demographic profile, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy, and individual factors. Correlations between the datasets were obtained using regression analysis and significance level using the Chi-square test.

Results: The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children in Indian health-care professionals is 3.3%. The most important source of information was the internet and social media. The majority of the participants knew about the vaccine and its side effects (p=0.00) and believed in the usefulness of the vaccine in preventing infection (p=0.008) and in reducing severity (p=0.009). All these factors lead to better vaccine acceptance.

Conclusion: These data show that vaccine acceptance has improved over time and thus HCWs can aid in reducing vaccine hesitancy.


Download data is not yet available.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 Hospitalizations. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available from: COVID19_3.html [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 04].

Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, Kambhampati A, Chai SJ, Reingold A, et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of children aged <18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19- COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1-July 25, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:1081-8. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e3. PMID: 32790664.

Anderson EJ, Daugherty MA, Pickering LK, Orenstein WA, Yogev R. Protecting the community through child vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 2018;67:464-71. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy142. PMID 29471452.

MacDonald NE. Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants. Vaccine 2015;33:4161-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.036. PMID 25896383.

World Health Organization. SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy Report of the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy.Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who. int/immunization/sage/meetings/2014/october/1_Report_WORKING_ GROUP_vaccine_hesitancy_final.pdf [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 26].

Luthy KE, Beckstrand RL, Peterson NE. Parental hesitation as a factor in delayed childhood immunization. J Pediatr Health Care 2009;23:388- 93. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2008.09.006. PMID: 19875026.

Byington CL. Vaccines: Can transparency increase confidence and reduce hesitancy? Pediatrics 2014;134:377-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014- 1494. PMID: 25086161.

Singhania N, Kathiravan S, Pannu AK. Acceptance of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine among health-care personnel in India: A cross-sectional survey during the initial phase of vaccination. Clin Microbiol Infect 2021;27:1064-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.03.008. PMID: 33798698.

Wagner AL, Shotwell AR, Boulton ML, Carlson BF, Mathew JL. Demographics of vaccine hesitancy in Chandigarh, India. Front Med (Lausanne) 2020;7:585579. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.585579. PMID: 33521011.

Alfieri NL, Kusma JD, Heard-Garris N, Davis MM, Golbeck E, Barrera L, et al. Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children: Vulnerability in an urban hotspot. BMC Public Health 2021;21:1662. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11725-5. PMID: 34517848.

Babicki M, Pokorna-Kałwak D, Doniec Z, Mastalerz-Migas A. Attitudes of parents with regard to vaccination of children against COVID-19 in Poland. A nationwide online survey. Vaccines (Basel) 2021;9:1192. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9101192. PMID: 34696300.

Temsah MH, Alhuzaimi AN, Aljamaan F, Bahkali F, Al-Eyadhy A, Alrabiaah A, et al. Parental attitudes and hesitancy about COVID-19 vs. Routine childhood vaccinations: A national survey. Front Public Health 2021;9:752323. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.752323. PMID: 34722451.

Fisher KA, Nguyen N, Crawford S, Fouayzi H, Singh S, Mazor KM. Preferences for COVID-19 vaccination information and location: Associations with vaccine hesitancy, race and ethnicity. Vaccine 2021;39:6591-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.058. PMID: 34629210.

Huynh G, Nguyen TV, Nguyen DD, Lam QM, Pham TN, Nguyen HTN. Knowledge about COVID-19, beliefs and vaccination acceptance against COVID-19 among high-risk people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Infect Drug Resist 2021;14:1773-80. doi: 10.2147/IDR. S308446, PMID 34012276.

Altulahi N, AlNujaim S, Alabdulqader A, Alkharashi A, AlMalki A, AlSiari F, et al. Willingness, beliefs, and barriers regarding the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia: A multiregional cross-sectional study. BMC Fam Pract 2021;22:247. doi: 10.1186/s12875-021-01606- 6. PMID: 34911441.

Walter EB, Talaat KR, Sabharwal C, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, Paulsen GC, et al. Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. N Engl J Med 2022;386:35-46. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116298. PMID: 34752019.

Moss WJ, Gostin LO, Nuzzo JB. Pediatric COVID-19 vaccines: What parents, practitioners, and policy makers need to know. JAMA 2021;326:2257-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.20734. PMID: 34739041.

Choi SH, Jo YH, Jo KJ, Park SE. Pediatric and parents’ attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines and intention to vaccinate for children. J Korean Med Sci 2021;36:e227. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e227. PMID: 34402237.

Paul E, Steptoe A, Fancourt D. Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: Implications for public health communications. Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021;1:100012. doi: 10.1016/j.lanepe.2020.100012. PMID: 33954296.



How to Cite

HIMANSHI, K. S. KADAM, and P. U UTTARWAR. “COVID-19 VACCINE HESITANCY FOR CHILDREN IN PARENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY AMONG HEALTH-CARE PROFESSIONALS IN INDIA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 15, no. 8, Aug. 2022, pp. 41-45, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2022.v15i8.44960.



Original Article(s)