ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF SOUTHERN ODISHA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Risk factors, Obesity, Waist hip ratio, Sedentary lifestyle
Objective: Diabetes is a chronic state of hyperglycemia which results in complications involving organs such as eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Identifying the risk factors at an early stage can help in reducing the complications and co-morbidities of the disease. Hence, the study is carried out to assess the socio-demographic profile and associated risk factors of adult patients with diabetes mellitus.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional study carried out in the urban field practice area of M.K.C.G Medical College for a period of 2 years. Multistage simple random sampling was used to select 160 known diabetic cases. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were taken. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 17 and appropriate statistical tests were used.
Results: The mean age of study participants was 53.94. About 41.88% and 21.25% were current tobacco and alcohol users, respectively. Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, mixed type diet, obesity in the form of increased body mass index, and waist hip ratio and sedentary life style were found to be the predisposing factors of the disease.
Conclusion: Early identification of at risk individuals and appropriate intervention to increase physical activity, bring about changes in dietary habits, maintenance of correct body weight could help to prevent or delay the onset of the disease to a great extent.
World Health Organization. Global Report on Diabetes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. p. 88.
Overview of Diabetes Burden. National Health Portal of India. Available from: https://www.nhp.gov.in/overview-of-diabetes-burden_ mtl [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 21].
Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018;138:271-81. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.023, PMID 29496507
Tandon N, Anjana RM, Mohan V, Kaur T, Afshin A, Ong K, et al. The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016. Lancet Glob Health 2018;6:e1352-62.
Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001;345:790-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa010492, PMID 11556298
King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995- 2025: Prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1414-31. doi: 10.2337/diacare.21.9.1414, PMID 9727886
Indian Diabetes Risk Score. Available from: https://www.japi.org/ u284e484/indian-diabetes-risk-score [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 22].
Rana HM, Chavda P, Rathod CC, Mavani M. Socio-demographic and Anthropometric Profile of Diabetic Patients Attending Diabetes Clinic in Tertiary Care Hospital of Central Gujarat; 2015. Available from: http://www.njcmindia.org [Last accessed in 2018 May 27].
Hills AP, Arena R, Khunti K, Yajnik CS, Jayawardena R, Henry CJ, et al. Epidemiology and determinants of type 2 diabetes in South Asia. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018;6:966-78. doi: 10.1016/S2213- 8587(18)30204-3, PMID 30287102
Keith RJ, Al Rifai M, Carruba C, De Jarnett N, McEvoy JW, Bhatnagar A, et al. Tobacco use, insulin resistance, and risk of Type 2 diabetes: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. PLoS One 2016;11:e0157592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157592, PMID 27322410
Yamada T, Hara K, Kadowaki T. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013;8:e70679. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0070679, PMID 23940623
Gupta PC, Ray CS. Smokeless tobacco and health in India and South Asia. Respirology 2003;8:419-31. doi: 10.1046/j.1440- 1843.2003.00507.x, PMID 14708551
Borah M, Goswami R. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of a diabetic population at a tertiary care center in Assam, India. J Soc Heal Diabetes 2017;5:37.
Mathur M, Mathur N, Singh O, Solanki J, Soni P, Sarwa A, et al. Demographic characters and factors favouring emergence of diabetes mellitus type two. Int J Res Med Sci 2018;6:950. doi: 10.18203/2320- 6012.ijrms20180621
Kumar KN, Katkuri S, Ramyacharitha I. Nama. i Falsafa. Vol. 5. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. Pažūhišhā i Farhangī; 1997. p. 1360-5. Available from: https://www. ijcmph.com/index.php/ijcmph/article/view/2786/1900 [Last accessed on 2019 Mar 14].
Koppes LL, Dekker JM, Hendriks HF, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care 2005;28:719-25. doi: 10.2337/diacare.28.3.719, PMID 15735217
Tripathy JP, Thakur JS, Jeet G, Chawla S, Jain S, Pal A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a large community-based study in North India: Results from a STEPS survey in Punjab, India. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017;9:8. doi: 10.1186/s13098-017-0207-3, PMID 28127405
Niti S, Amrit V, Jasdeep S. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults residing in field practice area of a teaching hospital in Punjab. Healthline J 2015;6:57.
Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 2012;380:219-29. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9, PMID 22818936
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Kapur A, Vijay V, Mohan V, Das AK, et al. High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey. Diabetologia 2001;44:1094- 101. doi: 10.1007/s001250100627, PMID 11596662
Meigs JB, Cupples LA, Wilson PW. Parental transmission of Type 2 diabetes the Framingham offspring study. Diabetes 2000;49:2201-7. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.49.12.2201, PMID 11118026
Vaag A, Henriksen JE, Madsbad S, Holm N, Beck-Nielsen H. Insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1995;95:690-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI117715, PMID 7860750
Mohan V, Shanthirani CS, Deepa R. Glucose intolerance (diabetes and IGT) in a selected South Indian population with special reference to family history, obesity and lifestyle factors-the Chennai urban population study (CUPS 14). J Assoc Physicians India 2003;51:771-7. PMID 14651136
Dev S, Jain T, Sivaprakasam P, Raja D. Risk factor assessment and screening for diabetes in field practice area of a private medical college in Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:2670-3. doi: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20173151
Valliyot B, Sreedharan J, Valliyot SB, Muttappallymyalil J, Hod P. Demographic parameters associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in North Kerala, India. Am J Res Commun 2014;2:39-48.
Shelgikar KM, Hockaday TD, Yajnik CS. Central rather than generalized obesity is related to hyperglycaemia in Asian Indian subjects. Diabet Med 1991;8:712-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.1991.tb01689.x, PMID 1838061
Hardy OT, Czech MP, Corvera S. What causes the insulin resistance underlying obesity? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2012;19:81- 7. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283514e13, PMID 22327367
Kavitha V, Ramadas VS. Prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors among selected Type 2 diabetes. Int J Sci Eng Res 2014;3:135-9.
McRae MP. Dietary fiber intake and Type 2 diabetes mellitus: An umbrella review of meta-analyses. J Chiropr Med 2018;17:44-53. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2017.11.002, PMID 29628808
Della G, Vetrani C, Vitale M, Riccardi G. Wholegrain intake and risk of Type 2 diabetes: evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies. Nutrients 2018;10:1288. doi: 10.3390/nu10091288
Jaacks LM, Kapoor D, Singh K, Narayan KM, Ali MK, Kadir MM, et al. Vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors: Differences between South Asian and US adults. Nutrition 2016;32:975-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.02.011, PMID 27155957
Mari-Sanchis A, Gea A, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Beunza JJ, Bes-Rastrollo MB. Meat consumption and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the sun project: A highly educated middle-class population. PLoS One 2016;11:e0157990. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0157990
Liu S, Serdula M, Janket SJ, Cook NR, Sesso HD, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2993-6. doi: 10.2337/ diacare.27.12.2993, PMID 15562224
Basu G, Biswas S, Chatterjee C. Behavioral risk factors of noncommunicable diseases: Experience from a village of Hoogly district. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013;4:19-24.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Shrabani Palai, Nivedita Karmee, Sangeeta Das, Durga Madhab Satapathy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.