• Adel Men Kholy Beni-Suef University-Egypt
  • Basant Mahmoud
  • Rania Mahmoud


Background: Fish oils (FO) contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, precursors of certain eicosanoids that
offering multiple health benefits.
Objectives: The current study performed to evaluate the effect of FO administration on hyperlipidemic and hypothyroid albino rats.
Methods: Hyperlipidemia was inducted by adding cholesterol powder, cholic acid and animal lard to the standard diet, while hypothyroidism was
induced by administration of carbimazole. Hyperlipidemic and hypothyroid rats received FO to rats through gastric intubation. Rats divided into five
groups each group contains six rats, and all treatments were performed orally and daily for 6 weeks.
Results: The current results revealed that FO administration was increased significantly thyroid hormones concentrations in the serum of
hyperlipidemic and hypothyroid rats as compared to control rats. However, leptin hormone concentration recorded a significant decrease by in both
groups. Moreover, FO treatment ameliorated significantly the elevated level of lipid parameters in hyperlipidemic rats while treated hypothyroid
rats recorded decreased levels of total lipids and atherogenic index only. Moreover, FO treatment ameliorated the non-enzymatic antioxidant, liver
malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) concentration and the enzymatic antioxidant, liver GSH-S-transferase and catalase activities, and also the
cardiac enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities in the treated groups.
Conclusion: FO administration showed a beneficial therapeutic effect on hyperlipidemic and hypothyroid albino rats due to the presence of omega-3
fatty acids, which showed hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hyperthyroid action.
Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acids, Fish oil, Antioxidants, Hyperlipidemia and hypothyroidism.

Author Biography

Adel Men Kholy, Beni-Suef University-Egypt
physiology division-Faculty of science


1. Calder PC. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Nutrition or pharmacology? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2014;75(3):645-62.
2. Lenihan-Geels G, Bishop KS, Ferguson LR. Alternative sources of omega-3 fats: Can we find a sustainable substitute for fish? Nutrients 2013;5(4):1301-15.
3. Moghadasian MH. Advances in dietary enrichment with n-3 fatty acids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2008;48(5):402-10.
4. Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen TP. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in men. Circulation 2009;120:2315-21.
5. Ervin RB. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003-2006. Nat Health Stat Report 2009;5(13):1-8.
6. Lai J, Wu B, Xuan T, Liu Z, Chen J. Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: An 8-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis 2014;13:1.
7. Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EB. A meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart disease. J Nutr 2012;142(1):99-104.
8. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, American Heart Association. Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106(21):2747-57.
9. Kim EJ, Lyass A, Wang N, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Benjamin EJ, et al. Relation of hypothyroidism and incident atrial fibrillation (from the Framingham Heart Study). Am Heart J 2014;167(1):123-6.
10. Souza LL, Nunes MO, Paula GS, Cordeiro A, Penha-Pinto V, Neto JF, et al. Effects of dietary fish oil on thyroid hormone signaling in the liver. J Nutr Biochem 2010;21(10):935-40.
11. McAnulty SR, Nieman DC, Fox-Rabinovich M, Duran V, McAnulty LS, Henson DA, et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on oxidative stress after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42(9):1704-11.
12. Chitra S, Semmalar R, Shyamala Devi CS. Effect of fish oil on cigarette smoking induced dyslipidemia in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:114-9.
13. Minhajuddin M, Beg ZH, Iqbal J. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43(5):747-53.
14. Abdelatif AM, Saeed IH. Effect of altered thyroid status in the domestic rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus) on thermoregulation, heart rate and immune response. Glob Vet 2009;3(6):447-56.
15. Fernandez-Ulloa M, Maxon HR. Thyroid. In: Kaplan LA, Pesce AJ, editors. Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis, and Correlation. 2nd ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1989. p. 620-38.
16. Maffei M, Halaas J, Ravussin E, Pratley R, Lee G, Zhang Y, et al. Leptin levels in human and rodent: Measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight reduced subjects. Nat Med 1995;1(11):1155-61.
17. Zollner N, Kirsch K. Serum total lipids determination colorimetrically. Z Ges Exp Meal 1970;1335:5.
18. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 1974;20(4):470-5.
19. Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem 1982;28(10):2077-80.
20. Lopes-Virella MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin Chem 1977;23(5):882-4.
21. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18(6):499-502.
22. Norbert WT. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 3rd ed. Philadilphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 1995.
23. Harnafi H, Hana SC, Nour el Houda B, Mohammed A, Souliman A. Hypolipemic activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from ocimumbasilicum in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Food Chem 2008;108:205-12.
24. Weiβhaar D, Grossau E, Faderal B. Normal ranges of alpha- HBDH, LDH, AP and LAP as measured with substrate-optimated test charges. Med Welt 1975;26:387-92.
25. Chemnitz G, Schmidt E, Koller PU, Busch EW. Creatine kinase: Reference values and clinical aspects of the revised standard method (author’s transl). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1979;104(7):257-60.
26. Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90(1):37-43.
27. Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.
28. Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 1974;249(22):7130-9.
29. Fossati P, Prencipe L, Berti G. Use of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine. Clin Chem 1980;26(2):227-31.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 4, 2015, 328-333
Abdel-Moneim et al.
30. Chavan T, Khadke S, Harke S, Ghadge A, Karandikar M, Pandit V, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids against repeated subacute acetaminophen dosing in rats, Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013;4(2):286-95.
31. Shearer GC, Pottala JV, Hansen SN, Brandenburg V, Harris WS. Effects of prescription niacin and omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and vascular function in metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Lipid Res 2012;53(11):2429-35.
32. Zarei A, Ashtiyani SC, Sokhandani M, Rezaei A, Zaheiri S, Taheri S. Comparison between the effects of the alcholic extract of Mellissia officinalis and atorvastatin on serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (ZJRMS) 2013;15(8):6-12.
33. Ashtiyani SC, Zarei A, Taheri S, Rasekh F, Ramazani M. The effects of portulacaoleracea alcoholic extract on induced hypercholesteroleomia in rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (ZJRMS) 2013;15(6):34-9.
34. Lachowicz K, Koszela-Piotrowska I, Rosołowska-Huszcz D. Thyroid hormone metabolism may depend on dietary fat. J Anim Feed Sci 2008;17:110-9.
35. Puskás LG, Kitajka K, Nyakas C, Barcelo-Coblijn G, Farkas T. Short-term administration of omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil results in increased transthyretin transcription in old rat hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100(4):1580-5.
36. Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 1994;372:425-32.
37. Al-Azzam SI, Alkhateeb AM, Alzoubi KH, Alzayadeen RN, Ababneh MA, Khabour OF. Atorvastatin treatment modulates the interaction between leptin and adiponectin, and the clinical parameters in patients with type II diabetes. Exp Ther Med 2013;6(6):1565-569.
38. Nadeem S, Raj C, Raj N. The influence of alpiniacalcarata extract on the serum lipid and leptin levels of rats with hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(3):S1822-6.
39. Meier C, Trittibach P, Guglielmetti M, Staub JJ, Müller B. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone in assessment of severity of tissue hypothyroidism in patients with overt primary thyroid failure: cross sectional survey. BMJ 2003;326(7384):311-2.
40. Song YB, An YR, Kim SJ, Park HW, Jung JW, Kyung JS, et al. Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric 2012;92(2):388-96.
41. Zarei A, Changizi Ashtiyani S, Taheri S, Rasekh F. Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2014;4(1):15-23.
42. Mostowik M, Gajos G, Zalewski J, Nessler J, Undas A. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase plasma adiponectin to leptin ratio in stable coronary artery disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2013;27(4):289-95.
43. Puglisi MJ, Hasty AH, Saraswathi V. The role of adipose tissue in mediating the beneficial effects of dietary fish oil. J Nutr Biochem 2011;22(2):101-8.
44. Pourjafar M, Mohebbi A, Nazifi S, Tarakeme S. In vitro study of effect of high-fat diet on serum leptin and thyroid hormone levels in mice. Persian J Shaheed Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2010;18(5):428-43.
45. Taylor F, Huffman MD, Macedo AF, Moore TH, Burke M, Davey Smith G, et al. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;1:CD004816.
46. Bhardwaj M, Kumar A, Tripathi S, Kumar S. Commiphorawightii down regulates HMG COA reductase in hyperlipidemic rats. Int J Biol Pharm Res 2013;4(6):441-7.
47. Durkar AM, Patil RR, Naik SR. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of symplocos racemosa Roxb. in hyperlipidemic rats: an evidence of participation of oxidative stress in hyperlipidemia. Indian J Exp Biol 2014;52(1):36-45.
48. Jump DB, Botolin D, Wang Y, Xu J, Demeure O, Christian B. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and hepatic gene transcription. Chem Phys Lipids 2008;153(1):3-13.
49. Sugiyama E, Ishikawa Y, Li Y, Kagai T, Nobayashi M, Tanaka N, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid lowers plasma and liver cholesterol levels in the presence of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha. Life Sci 2008;83(1-2):19-28.
50. Yahagi N, Shimano H, Hasty AH, Amemiya-Kudo M, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, et al. A crucial role of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in the regulation of lipogenic gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 1999;274(50):35840-4.
51. Suzuki K, Takahashi K, Nishimaki-Mogami T, Kagechika H, Yamamoto M, Itabe H. Docosahexaenoic acid induces adipose differentiation-related protein through activation of retinoid x receptor in human choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(7):1177-82.
52. Kumar AN. The effect of L–Thyroxine on metabolic parameters in newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism. Clin Exp Pharmacol 2013;3(3):128.
53. Rizos CV, Elisaf MS, Liberopoulos EN. Effects of thyroid dysfunction on lipid profile. Open Cardiovasc Med J 2011;5:76-84.
54. Hashimoto K, Cohen RN, Yamada M, Markan KR, Monden T, Satoh T, et al. Cross-talk between thyroid hormonereceptor and liver X receptor regulatory pathways is revealed in a thyroidhormone resistance mouse model. J Biol Chem 2006;281:295-302.
55. Erem C, Deger O, Bostan M, Orem A, Sönmez M, Ulusoy S, et al. Plasma lipoprotein (a) concentrations in hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. Acta Cardiol 1999;54:77-81.
56. Araki O, Ying H, Zhu XG, Willingham MC, Cheng SY. Distinct dysregulation of lipid metabolism by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Mol Endocrinol 2009;23(3):308-15.
57. Feld S, Dickey RA. An Association Between Varying Degrees of Hypothyroidism and Hypercholesterolemia in Women: The Thyroid-Cholesterol Connection. Prev Cardiol 2001;4(4):179-82.
58. Prabodh V, Prakash D, Sudhakar G, Reddy Y, Chowdary N, Desai S, et al. Importance of cardiac marker enzymes (Aspartate transaminase and troponin I) in acute myocardial infarction: A case-control study from South India. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2012;1(2):118-20.
59. Prabha SP, Ansil PN, Nitha A, Wills PJ, Latha MS. Anti-atherogenic activity of methanolic extract of gardenia gummiferalinn.f. on high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Int J Pharm Pharmsci 2013;5(2):388-93.
60. Vijaya Padma V, Shyamala Devi CS, Ramkumar KM. Effect of fish oil pretreatment on isoproterenol-induced changes in myocardial membrane phospholipids. Nutrition 2006;22(11-12):1171-6.
61. McGrowder DA, Fraser YP, Gordon L, Crawford TV, Rawlins JM. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with thyroid disorders. Niger J Clin Pract 2011;14:454-9.
62. Mushtaq S, Tilak MA, Rashid MR, Shinde SA, Phalak PJ. Biochemical evaluation of myopathy in patients of hypothyroidism. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2014;3(2):364-72.
63. Kamesh V, Sumathi T. Effect of bacopamonnieralinn. In attenuating hepatic oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic induced rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(3):90-5.
64. Shi W, Haberland ME, Jien ML, Shih DM, Lusis AJ. Endothelial responses to oxidized lipoproteins determine genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice. Circulation 2000;102(1):75-81.
65. Hong JH, Lee IS. Effects of Artemisia capillaris ethyl acetate fraction on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Chem Biol Interact 2009;179(2-3):88-93.
66. Mori TA, Woodman RJ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Croft KD, Beilin LJ. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in treated-hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;35(7):772-81.
67. Takahashi M, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Nakatani T, Ishii M, Tsutsumi S, Aburatani H, et al. Fish oil feeding alters liver gene expressions to defend against PPARalpha activation and ROS production. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002;282(2):G338-48.
68. Dariyerli N, Toplan S, Akyolcu MC, Hatemi H, Yigit G. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism. Endocrine 2004;25(1):1-5.
69. Petrulea MS, Duncea I, Hazi G, Dragotoiu G, Decea N, MureÅŸan A. Oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism: Effect of vitamin E supplementation. Clujul Med 2010;84(2):245-9.
339 Views | 403 Downloads
How to Cite
Kholy, A. M., B. Mahmoud, and R. Mahmoud. “THE BENEFECIAL EFFECTS OF FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND HYPOTHYROID ALBINO RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 4, July 2015, pp. 324-9,
Original Article(s)