PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY ON HERBAL DRUGS: AN OVERVIEW ALEZA
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is the branch of biomedical science that explores the relationships between the nervous system, emotions, and the
immune system. In other words, we can say that PNI is the study of the interaction between mind and body as a result of stress exposure. Therefore
it is also called as mind-body medicine. It has been stated that psychological states like chronic stress, depression, anxiety, fear, and social context
produce profound effects on the body. Herbal anti-stress products have the advantage of the limited side effects. Medicinal plants have been known
for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of stress-related diseases like
cancers, coronary disease, and some autoimmune diseases. PNI reminds us that psychological states like chronic stress, depression, anxiety, fear, and
social context produce profound effects on the body. PNI explores the influence of your mind on your body and immune system. Using a variety of
techniques, you direct your energies toward healing and health. The aim of this review is to highlight the plants involved in improving health through
direct effects on immune function, as well as through the mind/body connection.
Keywords: Psychoneuroimmunology , Stress, Ayurveda, Mind body medicine
Available from: http://www.nfnlp.com/psychoneuroimmunology_quinlan.htm. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 21].
Daruna JH. Introduction to Psychoneuroimmunology. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004.
Song C, Leonard BE. Fundamentals of Psychoneuroimmunology. New York: John Wiley Sons Ltd; 2000.
An Overview of Alternative and Complementary Medicine for Healthcare Professionals. Available from: http://www.RN.com [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 04].
Evans DL, Charney DS, Lewis L, Golden RN, Gorman JM, Krishnan KR, et al. Mood disorders in the medically ill: Scientific review and recommendations. Biol Psychiatry 2005;58(3):175-89.
Madeline M. Lorentz RN. Stress and psychoneuroimmunology revisited: Using mind-body interventions to reduce stress. Altern J Nur 2006;4(11):1-11.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK. Stress, food, and inflammation: Psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition at the cutting edge. Psychosom Med 2010;72(4):365-9.
Darton K. How to Manage Stress. London: Mind; 2012.
Wahab S, Hussain A. Cytokines as targets for immunomodulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5 Suppl 3:60-64.
Pawar VS, Shivakumar H. A current status of adaptogens: Natural remedy to stress. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2 Suppl 1:S480-90.
Fleshner M, Laudenslager ML. Psychoneuroimmunology: Then and now. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2004;3(2):114-30.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: Back to the future. Psychosom Med 2002;64(1):15-28.
Holmes P. The Energetics of Western Herbs. Vol. 1. Berkeley: Nat Trop Publishing; 1993.
Murphy E. Psychoneuroimmunology the Study of Mind and Body Suite101. Available from: http://suite101.com/article/psychoneuroimmunology-the-study-of-mind-and-body-a128118#ixzz2LSuL7f9F. [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 04].
Nijkamp PF, Parnham MJ. Principles of Immunopharmacology. Switzerland: Springer International Edition; 2007. p. 150.
Mukherjee KP. Quality Control Herbal Drugs, Business Horizons. New Delhi: Pharmaceutical Publishers; 2007. p. 22.
Micozzi MS. Fundamentals of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2006.
Bhattacharjee SK. Handbook of Aromatic Plants. Jaipur: Pointer Publishers; 2005. p.15.
Ernst E. The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach. London: Mosby; 2001.
Cohen N, Kehrl H, Berglund B, Oâ€™Leary A, Ross G, Seltzer J, et al. Psychoneuroimmunology. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105 Suppl 2:527-9.21. Available from: http://www.aromatherapy-school.com/aromatherapy-schools/aromatherapy articles/aromatherapy-pni-psychoneuroimmunology.html. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 04].
Martinec R. Some implications of using aromatherapy as complementary method in oncology setting. Arch Oncol 2012;19(3-4):70-4.
Gupta V, Bansal P, Niazi J, Kaur G. Anti-anxiety activity of citrus paradisi var. Star ruby extracts. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010;2:1655-7.
Bilal A, Jahan N, Ahmed A, Bilal SN, Habib S, Hajra S. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Ocimum basilicum linn - A review. Int J Curr Res Rev 2012;4(23):73-83.
Spinella M. Herbal medicines and epilepsy: The potential for benefit and adverse effects. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2(6):524-32.
Power J. Psychoneuroimmunology and Aromatherapy: A Neuropsychologistâ€™s Perspective, 2002.
Sarris J, Panossian A, Schweitzer I, Stough C, Scholey A. Herbal medicine in depression, anxiety and insomnia: A review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21(12):
Available from: http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http:// www. continentalsourcing.com/assets/images/productimage/yi%2520wu/
additional%2520images/jayc0704.jpg&imgrefurl=http:// www.continentalsourcing.com/home-decor/accent-items/pid3537/ aromapathy. [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 21].
Perry N, Perry E. Aromatherapy in the management of psychiatric disorders clinical and neuropharmacological perspectives. CNS Drugs 2006;20(4):257-80.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.