• Yashasvi Suvarna
  • Rathai Rajagopalan


Garlic, a very common condiment found in our kitchens has immense therapeutic potential. It has been used since ages in different civilizations
and eras for therapy in diverse conditions. However, somewhere down the lane, its health benefits were forgotten with very few researchers doing
studies on it and demonstrating its benefits in various disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, central, and peripheral nervous systems including
dermatological and reproductive disorders. However, with a boom in the Nutraceutical industry in the past few decades, renewed interest has been
generated in this age-old remedy with it becoming a very popular health supplement. This review focuses on the health benefits of this wonder food.
It also emphasizes the need to find the right therapeutic dose at which it can be therapeutically beneficial and paves the way for future research.
Keywords: Garlic, Antioxidant, Dementia, Lipid lowering.


Download data is not yet available.


Block E. Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2010. p. 225.

Manniche L. An Ancient Egyptian Herbal. London: British Museum Press; 2006.

Moyers S. Garlic in Health, History and World Cuisine. St. Petersburg, FL: Suncoast Press; 1996.p. 1-36.

Lawson LD. Garlic: A review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. In: Lawson LD, Bauer R, editors. Phytomedicines of Europe. Chemistry and Biological Activity. ACS Symposium Series 691. Washington DC: American Chemical Society; 1998. p. 176-209.

Woodward PW. Garlic and Friends: The History, Growth and Use of Edible Alliums. Melbourne, Australia: Hyland House; 1996. p. 2-22.

Kahn G. History of garlic. In: Koch HP, Lawson LD, editors. Garlic: The Science and Therapeutic Application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species. New York: Williams and Wilkins; 1996. p. 25-36.

Petrovska BB, Cekovska S. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4(7):106-10.

Bergner P. The Healing Power of Garlic. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing; 1996. p. 3-26.

Zimmerman K. History of garlic around the world, 2010. Available from: http://www.garlic [Last cited on 2015 Jan 15].

Rivlin RS. Historical perspective on the use of garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):951S-4.

Tucakov JB. Farmakognozija.Beograd, Croatian: Naucna Knjiga; 1948. p. 278-80.

Wikipedia. Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 15].

United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. GRIN Taxonomy for Plants. Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 15].

Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 15].

Johnston N. Garlic: A natural antibiotic. ACM Modern Drug Discovery. 2002;5(4):12.

Pedraza-Chaverrí J, Medina-Campos ON, Avila-Lombardo R, Berenice Zúñiga-Bustos A, Orozco-Ibarra M. Reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity of different cooked garlic preparations. Life Sci 2006;78(7):761-70.

Brodnitz MH, Pascale JV, Derslice LV. Flavor components of garlic extract. J Agric Food Chem 1971;19(2):273-5.

Yu TH, Wu CM. Stability of allicin in garlic juice. J Food Sci 1989;54(4):977.

Lanzotti V. The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr A 2006;1112(1-2):3-22.

Hartman, Hope N. Wyngate Pamela Phase One study of vitamins, minerals, herbs and supplements. Natural Foods Merchandiser. 1998. p. 14-6.

Josling PA. The Heart of Garlic Nature’s Aid to Healing the Human Body. Chicago, Illinois: HEC Publishing; 2005. p. 20.

Nutrition facts for raw garlic, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21. Conde Nast. 2014. Available from [Last cited on 2015 Jan 15].

Borek C. Garlic: 4 varieties for health. Health Science News, March 2000. Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 16].

Kyolic. Aged garlic extract: Scientifically supported traditional use of garlic. Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 16].

Amagase H. Clarifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic. J Nutr 2006;136 3 Suppl:716S-25.

Cobas AC, Soria AC, Martinez MC, Villamiel MA. Comprehensive survey of garlic functionality. Garlic Consumption Health 2010;1(1):1‑60.

Kyolic. The Kyolic Story. Available from: [Last cited on 2015 Jan 16].

Borek C. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1010S-5.

Stampfer MJ. Cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease: Common links. J Intern Med 2006;260(3):211-23.

Launer LJ. Demonstrating the case that AD is a vascular disease: Epidemiologic evidence. Ageing Res Rev 2002;1(1):61-77.

Streit WJ, Sparks DL. Activation of microglia in the brains of humans with heart disease and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. J Mol Med (Berl) 1997;75(2):130-8.

Sparks DL, Scheff SW, Hunsaker JC 3rd, Liu H, Landers T, Gross DR. Induction of Alzheimer-like beta-amyloid immunoreactivity in the brains of rabbits with dietary cholesterol. Exp Neurol 1994;126(1):88‑94.

Augusti KT, Chackery J, Jacob J, Kuriakose S, George S, Nair SS. Beneficial effects of a polar fraction of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) oil in rats fed with two different high fat diets. Indian J Exp Biol 2005;43(1):76-83.

Bordia A, Verma SK. Effect of garlic feeding on regression of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Artery 1980;7(5):428-37.

Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, Elson CE, Burger WC. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids 1983;18(5):343-8.

Qureshi AA, Crenshaw TD, Abuirmeileh N, Peterson DM, Elson CE. Influence of minor plant constituents on porcine hepatic lipid metabolism. Impact on serum lipids. Atherosclerosis 1987;64(2‑3):109‑15.

Chang HS, Yamato O, Yamasaki M, Maede Y. Modulatory influence of sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate from garlic on cyclooxygenase activity in canine platelets: Possible mechanism for the anti-aggregatory effect. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;72(5):351-5.

Qi R, Liao F, Inoue K, Yatomi Y, Sato K, Ozaki Y. Inhibition by diallyl trisulfide, a garlic component, of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization without affecting inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) formation in activated platelets. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60(10):1475-83.

Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: Human and animal studies. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):989S-93.40. Kannar D, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Savige GS, Wahlqvist ML. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20(3):225-31.

Turner B, Molgaard C, Marckmann P. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2004;92(4):701-6.

Durak I, Kavutcu M, Aytac B, Avci A, Devrim E, Ozbek H, et al. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15(6):373-7.

Teranishi K, Apitz-Castro R, Robson SC, Romano E, Cooper DK. Inhibition of baboon platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo by the garlic derivative, ajoene. Xenotransplantation 2003;10(4):374-9.

Srivastava KC. Evidence for the mechanism by which garlic inhibits platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1986;22(3):313.21.

Bordia AK, Sanadhya SK, Rathore AS, Bhu N. Essential oil of garlic on blood lipids and fibrinolytic activity in patients of coronary artery disease. Part I. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26(5):327-31.

Bordia A, Sharma KD, Parmar YK, Verma SK. Protective effect of garlic oil on the changes produced by 3 weeks of fatty diet on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fibrinolytic activity and platelet adhesiveness in man. Indian Heart J 1982;34(2):86-8.

Chutani SK, Bordia A. The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Atherosclerosis 1981;38(3-4):417-21.

Saleem S, Ahmad M, Ahmad AS, Yousuf S, Ansari MA, Khan MB, et al. Behavioral and histologic neuroprotection of aqueous garlic extract after reversible focal cerebral ischemia. J Med Food 2006;9(4):537-44.

Pari L, Murugavel P. Diallyl tetrasulfide improves cadmium induced alterations of acetylcholinesterase, ATPases and oxidative stress in brain of rats. Toxicology 2007;234(1-2):44-50.

Pari L, Murugavel P, Sitasawad SL, Kumar KS. Cytoprotective and antioxidant role of diallyl tetrasulfide on cadmium induced renal injury: An in vivo and in vitro study. Life Sci 2007;80(7):650-8.

Koh SH, Kwon H, Park KH, Ko JK, Kim JH, Hwang MS, et al. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide on oxidative stress-injured neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005;133(2):176-86.

Chauhan NB, Sandoval J. Amelioration of early cognitive deficits by aged garlic extract in AlzheimerÂfs transgenic mice. Phytother Res 2007;21(7):629-40.

Kim-Park S, Ku DD. Garlic elicits a nitric oxide-dependent relaxation and inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000;27(10):780-6.

Yadav RK, Verma NS. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog: A dose-dependent study. Indian J Exp Biol 2004;42(6):628-31.

Sendl A, Elbl G, Steinke B, Redl K, Breu W, Wagner H. Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 1992;58(1):1-7.

Dhawan V, Jain S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;266(1-2):109-15.

Li G, Shi Z, Jia H, Ju J, Wang X, Xia Z, et al. A clinical investigation on garlicin injectio for treatment of unstable angina pectoris and its actions on plasma endothelin and blood sugar levels. J Tradit Chin Med 2000;20(4):243-6.

Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, Belz GG. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation 1997;96(8):2649-55.

Anim-Nyame N, Sooranna SR, Johnson MR, Gamble J, Steer PJ. Garlic supplementation increases peripheral blood flow: A role for interleukin-6? J Nutr Biochem 2004;15(1):30-6.

Ginter E, Simko V. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases. Bratisl Lek Listy 2010;111(8):452-6.

Budoff MJ, Takasu J, Flores FR, Niihara Y, Lu B, Lau BH, et al. Inhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: A preliminary study. Prev Med 2004;39(5):985-91.

Qidwai W, Ashfaq T. Role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention: An evidence-based approach. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:125649.

Jin ZY, Wu M, Han RQ, Zhang XF, Wang XS, Liu AM, et al. Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013;6(7):711-8.

Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller CE, Creasy RA, Stanilka JM, Percival SS. Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and ?d-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention. Clin Nutr 2012;31(3):337-44.

Jakobsen TH, van Gennip M, Phipps RK, Shanmugham MS, Christensen LD, Alhede M, et al. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56(5):2314-25.

van der Walt A, Singh T, Baatjies R, Lopata AL, Jeebhay MF. Work-related allergic respiratory disease and asthma in spice mill workers is associated with inhalant chili pepper and garlic exposures. Occup Environ Med 2013;70(7):446-52.

Worku M, Franco R, Baldwin K. Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in adult boer goats. Arch Biol Sci 2009;61(1):135-40.

Amin MR, Mostofa M, Hoque ME, Sayed MA. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of some indigenous medicinal plants against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. J Bangladesh Agric Univ 2009;7(1):57-61.

McNulty CA, Wilson MP, Havinga W, Johnston B, OÂfGara EA, Maslin DJ. A pilot study to determine the effectiveness of garlic oil capsules in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 2001;6(3):249-53.

Hodge G, Hodge S, Han P. Allium sativum (garlic) suppresses leukocyte inflammatory cytokine production in vitro: Potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytometry 2002;48(4):209-15.

Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: Meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(4):1047-52.

Ogbuewu IP, Unamba-Oparah IC, Odoemenam VU, Etuk IF, Okoli IC. The potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males. N Am J Med Sci 2011;3(6):255-63.

Hammami I, El May MV. Impact of garlic feeding (Allium sativum) on male fertility. Andrologia 2013;45(4):217-24.

Hammami I, Amara S, Benahmed M, El May MV, Mauduit C. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: Mechanisms of action. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2009;7:65.

Oi Y, Imafuku M, Shishido C, Kominato Y, Nishimura S, Iwai K. Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. J Nutr 2001;131(8):2150.6.

Bravi F, Bosetti C, Dal Maso L, Talamini R, Montella M, Negri E, et al. Food groups and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 2006;67(1):73-9.

Devrim E, Durak I. Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer? Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51(11):1319.23.

Padiya R, Khatua TN, Bagul PK, Kuncha M, Banerjee SK. Garlic improves insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic syndromes in fructose fed rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011;8:53.

Heydarpour F. The effect of garlic odor on appetite center. Endocr Abstr 2006;11:P588.

Jung EM, Jung F, Mrowietz C, Kiesewetter H, Pindur G, Wenzel E. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study in apparently healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:626-30.

Pazyar N, Feily A. Garlic in dermatology. Dermatol Reports 2011;3(1):e4.

Jaber MA, Mossawi AA. Susceptibility of some multiple resistant bacteria to garlic extracts. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6(6):771-6.

Tsao SM, Yin MC. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of four diallyl sulphides occurring naturally in garlic and Chinese leek oils. J Med Microbiol 2001;50(7):646-9.

Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Shokoohamiri MR, Amirrajab N, Moghadasi B, Ghajari A, Zeini F, et al. In vitro antifungal activities of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and ketoconazole against some pathogenic yeasts and dermatophytes. Fitoterapia 2006;77(4):321-3.

Dhama K, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, Saminathan M, Kumar A, Karthik K, et al. Evidence based antibacterial potentials of medicinal plants and herbs countering bacterial pathogens especially in the era of emerging drug resistance: An integrated update. Int J Pharm 2014;10:1.43.

Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: A review. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2011;47(4):465-73.87. Friedman T, Shalom A, Westreich M. Self-inflicted garlic burns: Our experience and literature review. Int J Dermatol 2006;45(10):1161-3.

Kao SH, Hsu CH, Su SN, Hor WT, Chang T WH, Chow LP. Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113(1):161-8.

Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconcel M, Takasu J, Razon R, Amagase H, et al. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy. J Nutr 2006;136 3 Suppl:793S-5.

Gallicano K, Foster B, Choudhri S. Effect of short-term administration of garlic supplements on single-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003;55(2):199-202.



How to Cite

Suvarna, Y., and R. Rajagopalan. “GARLIC: NATURE’S PANACEA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, May 2015, pp. 8-13,



Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)