QUALITATIVE PHTOCHEMISTRY PROFILE OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS VULGARIS SCHRAD) RIND EXTRACTS WITH DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

  • Angeline CHRISTIE Hannah m
  • KRISHNAKUMARI s

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. is known to contain bioactive compounds such as cucurbitacin, triterpenes, sterols and alkaloids, vitamins,
minerals and has also proved to contain antioxidant and therapeutic properties.
Objectives: The study focus to elucidate on the percentage of extractive yield and to screen the watermelon rind extracts using various solvents and
hot aqueous extract for its phytochemical profile.
Methods: The solvents used were methanol, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone and hot aqueous extracts. The rind samples
were shade dried and powdered. It was then subjected to soxhlet extraction using the different solvents and pressurized hot water extraction. The
obtained extracts were concentrated and screened for preliminary phytoconstituents using standard laboratory protocols.
Results: The rind extracts with different solvents and pressurized hot water extract showed different yield percentages and on analysis, hot aqueous
extract was found to have the highest extractive yield. The preliminary screening of the rind extracts with different solvents and pressurized hot water
extract were tabulated and showed the presence and/or absence of various bioactive constituents including the primary and secondary metabolites.
Conclusion: Thus, the phytochemical constituents such as the primary metabolites and the secondary metabolites and various other bioactive
elements that are identifies are thought to be responsible for its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.
Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., Metabolites, Phytoconstituents, Soxhlet extraction, Yield percentage, Watermelon rind.

References

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Table 1: Phytochemical screening of watermelon (C. vulgaris Schrad.) rind extracts
S. no
Parameters
Test
Methanol extract
Ethanol extract
Chloroform extract
Petroleum ether extract
Ethyl acetate extract
Acetone extract
Hot aqueous extract
1
Carbohydrates
Benedict’s test
+++
++
+
+
++
+
+++
Molisch’s test
++
+
−
++
+
++
++
2
Protein and amino acids
Biuret
++
+
−
+
−
++
+++
Ninhydrin
+++
++
−
−
−
+
+++
Xanthoproteic test
++
++
−
−
+
+
++
3
Fatty acids
Spot test
+++
++
++
−
++
+
+
4
Fixed oils
Spot test
+++
++
++
−
++
+
+
5
Volatile oils
Smell test
++
+++
+++
++
+
+
−
6
Sterols
Salkowski test
+++
+++
+++
+++
+++
++
++
7
Steroids
Liebermann‑Burchard test
−
−
++
++
+
+
+
8
Alkaloids
Meyer’s test
++
++
−
+
++
++
++
Hager’s test
++
++
++
++
+
+
++
9
Flavonoids
Lead acetate test
++
++
+
−
+
+
+++
Shinoda test
+++
+
+
+
+
++
++
10
Saponins
Foam test
+
+
−
−
+
−
++
Froth test
++
++
+
+
++
++
++
11
Tannins
Lead acetate test
++
++
+
−
+
+
+++
Gelatin test
+
++
−
−
+
−
+++
12
Phenols
Lead acetate test
++
++
+
−
+
+
+++
Ferric chloride test
+++
++
++
++
+
++
+++
13
Anthraquinone
Borntrager’s test
−
−
−
+
−
+
−
Hydrochloric acid test
+
−
−
−
−
+
++
14
Acids
Sodium bicarbonate test
+
+
−
−
+
−
++
15
Thiols
Sodium nitroprusside test
+
−
+
+
++
+
+
16
Terpenoids
Salkowski test
+++
+++
+++
+++
+++
++
++
17
Triterpenoids
Libermann‑Burchard test
−
−
++
++
+
+
+
18
Coumarins
Sodium hydroxide test
++
++
−
−
++
+++
++
19
Resins
Turbidity test
−
+
−
−
−
+
+++
20
Quinones
Sulfuric acid test
+++
+++
−
+
++
++
+++
21
Oxalate
Acetic acid test
−
+++
−
+++
+++
+
22
Anthocyanin
Hydrochloric acid test
+
−
−
−
+
+
23
Anthrax resinoids
Borntrager’s test
++
+
−
−
+++
++
24
Emodins
Ammonium hydroxide test
++
−
−
−
−
++
25
Chalcones
Ammonium hydroxide test
++
−
−
−
−
++
26
Anthocyanoside
Sodium hydroxide test
++
++
−
++
+++
+
27
Phlobatannins
Ammonia test
+
−
−
−
+
+
Hydrochloric acid test
++
−
−
−
−
++
28
Gum and mucilages
Swelling test
+
++
+
++
+
+++
29
Glycosides
Modified borntrager’s test
++
++
−
++
+++
++
30
Cardiac glycosides
Keller Killiani test
++
++
−
++
+++
++
Legal’s test
+
−
+
++
+
+
+: Trace, ++: Plenty, +++: Abundance, −: Absence, C. vulgaris: Citrullus vulgaris
Table 2: Extractive yield percentage of C. vulgaris Schrad. rind extracts
S. no
Extracts
Yield percentage (w/w)
1
Methanol extract
16.5
2
Ethanol extract
19.5
3
Chloroform extract
2.9
4
Petroleum ether extract
8.1
5
Ethyl acetate extract
7.9
6
Acetone extract
6.1
7
Hot aqueous extract
40.8
C. vulgaris: Citrullus vulgaris
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 4, 2015, 62-65
Hannah and Krishnakumari
65
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How to Cite
Hannah m, A. C., and K. s. “QUALITATIVE PHTOCHEMISTRY PROFILE OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS VULGARIS SCHRAD) RIND EXTRACTS WITH DIFFERENT SOLVENTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 4, July 2015, pp. 62-65, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/5236.
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