• Akansha Singh National Facility for Biopharmaceuticals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400019. India.
  • Gursimran Kaur Uppal National Facility for Biopharmaceuticals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400019. India.


Carissa carandas, Karonda, Bioactive metabolites, Phytochemicals, Pharmacology, Conservation


Carissa carandas is a useful food and medicinal plant of India, found to be widely distributed throughout subtropical and topical regions. The plant
has been used as a traditional medicinal plant over thousands of years in the Ayurvedic, Unani, and Homoeopathic system of medicine. Traditionally,
whole plant and its parts were used in the treatment of various ailments. The major bioactive constituents, which impart medicinal value to the herb,
are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and large amounts of cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. Roots were reported to
contain volatile principles including 2-acetyl phenol, lignan, carinol, sesquiterpenes (carissone, carindone), lupeol, β-sitosterol, 16β-hydroxybetulinic
acid, α-amyrin, β-sitosterol glycoside, and des-Nmethylnoracronycine, whereas leaves were reported to contain triterpenoid constitutes as well
as tannins. While, fruits have been reported to contain carisol, epimer of α-amyrin, linalool, β-caryophyllene, carissone, carissic acid, carindone,
ursolic acid, carinol, ascorbic acid, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Ethnopharmacological significance of the plant has been ascribed due to anti-cancer,
anti-convulsant, anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatoryAQ1, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic activity, cardiovascular, anti-nociceptive, anti-diabetic,
antipyretic, hepatoprotective, neuropharmacological, and diuretic activities, antimicrobial activities and cytotoxic potentials, in-vitro anti-oxidant,
and DNA damage inhibition, and constipation and diarrheal activities. The review also dealt with describing micropropagation strategies for effective
conservation of this important food and medicinal plant. The review has been written with the aim to provide a direction for further clinical research
to promote safe and effective herbal treatments to cure a number of diseases.


Jain SK. Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany.

New Delhi: Deep Publications; 1991.

Wani RA, Prasad VM, Hakeem SA, Sheema S, Angchuk S, Dixit A.

Shelf life of Karonda jams (Carissa carandas L.) under ambient

temperature. Afr J Agric Res 2013;8(21):2447-9.

Malik SK, Chaudhury R, Dhariwaln OP, Bhandari DC. Genetic

Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India. New Delhi:

NBPGR; 2010. p. 178.

Maheshwari R, Sharma A, Verma D. Phyto-therapeutic Significance of

Karaunda. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 2012;1:34-6.

Sawant RB, Desai UT, Ranpise SA, More TA, Sawant SV. Genotypic

and phenotypic variability in Karonda (Carissa carandas L.,). J

Maharashtra Agric Univ 2002;27(3):266-8.

Morton JF. Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami, FL: Creative Resource

Systems, Inc. N.C.; 1987.

Hegde K, Thakker SP, Joshi AB, Shastry CS, Chandrashekhar KS.

Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa carandas Linn. root extract in

experimental mice. Trop J Pharm Res 2009;8:117-25.

Rastogi RC, Vohra MM, Rastogi RP, Dhar ML. Studies on Carissa

carandas Linn. Part I. Isolation of the cardiac active principles. Indian

J Chem 1966;4:132.

Singh B, Rastogi RP. The structure of carindone. Phytochemistry


Pal R, Kulshreshtha DK, Rastogi RP. A new lignan from Carissa

carandas. Phytochemistry 1975;14:2302-3.

Hegde K, Joshi AB. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn

root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative

stress. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47(8):660-7.

Ganapaty S, Bharath CH, Laatsch H. Des-N-Methylnoracronycine from

the roots of Carissa conjesta. Wight. Int J Green Pharm 2010;4(3):186.

Wangteeraprasert R, Likhitwitayawuid K. Lignans and a sesquiterpene

glucoside from Carissa carandas stem. Helv Chim Acta 2009;92(6):1217-23.

Naim Z, Khan MA, Nizami SS. Isolation of a new isomer of ursolic

acid from fruits and leaves of Carissa carandas. Pak J Sci Ind Res


Siddiqui BS, Ghani U, Ali ST, Usmani SB, Begum S. Triterpenoidal

constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Nat Prod Res


Begum S, Syed SA, Siddiqui BS, Sattar SA, Choudhary MI. Carandinol:

First isohopane triterpene from the leaves of Carissa carandas L. and its

cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. Phytochem Lett 2013;6(1):91-5.

Sharma A, Tiwari RK, Kaushik A, Tyagi LK, Shankar K, Virmani T,

et al. Standardisation of Carissa carandas Linn: A drug used in

Indian system of medicine as per WHO Guidelines. Cont J Pharm Sci


Devmurari V, Shivanand P, Goyani MB, Vaghani S, Jivani NP.

A review: Carissa congesta: Phytochemical constituents, traditional

use and pharmacological properties. Pharmacogn Rev 2009;3(6):375.

Pino JA, Marbot R, Vázquez C. Volatile flavor constituents of Karanda

(Carissa carandas L.) fruit. J Essent Oil Res 2004;16(5):432-4.

Gaurav S, Navneet N, Sandeep R, Singh P, Amit P, Manisha N, et al.

Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Carissa carandas linn. on blood

glucose levels of normoglycemic & alloxan induced diabetic wister

rats. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2010;2(3):65-7.

Itankar PR, Lokhande SJ, Verma PR, Arora SK, Sahu RA, Patil AT.

Antidiabetic potential of unripe Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract.

J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135(2):430-3.

Bhaskar VH, Balakrishnan N. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and

antipyretic activities of Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas. Daru

J Pharm Sci 2009;17(3):168-74.

Hati M, Jena BK, Kar S, Nayak AK. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory

and anti-pyretic activity of Carissa carandas L. leaf extract in rats. J

Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2014;1(1):18-25.

Anupama N, Madhumitha G, Rajesh KS. Role of dried fruits of Carissa

carandas as anti-inflammatory agents and the analysis of phytochemical

constituents by GC-MS. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:512369.

Bhaskar VH, Balakrishnan N. Hepatoprotective activity of laticiferous

plant species (Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas) from Western

Ghats, Tamilnadu, India. Pharm Lett 2009;1(2):130-42.

Saha R, Hossain L, Bose U, Rahman AA. Europharmacological and

diuretic activities of Carissa carandas linn. Leaf. Pharmacologyonline


Middlemiss D, Watson SP. A medicinal chemistry case study: An

account of an angiotensin II antagonist drug discovery programme.

Tetrahedron 1994;50:13049-80.

Shamim S, Ahmad SI. Pharmacodynamic study on acute hypotensive

activities of Carissa carandas extract in normal rats. Pak J Pharm Sci


Islam MR, Rahman SM, Ahmed M, Das PR, Tabibul M, Islam MH,

et al. Antinociceptive activity studies with methanol extract of Annona

reticulata L.(Annonaceae) and Carissa carandas L.(Apocynaceae)

leaves in Swiss albino mice. Adv Nat Appl Sci 2012;6(8):1313-8.

Sulaiman SF, Wong ST, Ooi KL, Yusof SR, Muhammad T, Sifzizul T.

Anticancer study of Carissa carandas extracts. Anticancer study of

Carissa carandas extracts. Project Report, Monograph Universiti

Sains Malaysia; 2008. Available from: http://eprints.usm.my/180/1/

Anticancer_study_of_Carissa_carandas_extracts.pdf. [Last accessed

on 2015 May 01].

Dua D, Srivastav NS. Anti-cancerous and antioxidant potential of

aqueous extracts of Annona reticulata, Podophyllum peltatum, Psidium

guajava, Ananas comosus, Carissa carandas on MCF-7 cancer cell

line. Int J Integr Sci Innov Technol Sec 2013;2(4):15-9.

Sadek YB, Choudhury N, Shahriar M. Biological investigations

of the leaf extracts of Carissa Carandas. Int J Pharm Res Technol


Verma K, Shrivastava D, Kumar G. Antioxidant activity and DNA

damage inhibition in vitro by a methanolic extract of Carissa carandas

(Apocynaceae) leaves. J Taibah Univ Sci 2015;9(1):34-40.

Merai AH, Jadhav AG. Anti ulcer activity of Carissa carandas using

root extract in albino rats. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3(4):1314-26.35. Mehmood MH, Anila N, Begum S, Syed SA, Siddiqui BS,

Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of

Carissa carandas in constipation and diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol


Mishra CK, Sasmal D, Shrivastava B. An in vitro evaluation of the

anthelmintic activity of unripe fruits extract of Carissa carandas Linn.

Int J Drug Dev Res 2012;4(4):393-7.

Bapna S, Ramaiya M, Chowdhary A. Antimalarial activity of Carissa

carandas Linn. against Plasmodium falciparum. J Antimicrob (Photon)


Misra KK, Jaiswal HR. Effect of growth regulators on rooting of

stool layers of karonda (Carissa carandas L.). Indian J Forestry


Misra KK, Singh R. Effect of growth regulators on rooting and

survival of air layers of karonda (Carissa carandas L.). Ann Agric Res


Tyagi S, Misra KK, Jaiswal HR. Effect of auxins on rooting of softwood

stem cuttings of Carissa under mist. Sci Hortic 1999;6:37-43.

Kumar D, Pandey V, Nath V. Karonda (Carissa congesta) – An

Underutilized fruit crop. In: Peter KV, editor. Underutilized and

Underexploited Horticulture Crops. Vol. I. New Delhi: Pitam Pura;

p. 313-25.

Rai R. Standardization of micropropagation technique in Carissa Spp.

Diss. Pantnagar: Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and

Technology; 2001.

Rai R, Misra KK. Micropropagation of karonda (Carissa carandas)

through shoot multiplication. Sci Hortic 2005;103:227-32.

Imran MA, Begum G, Sujatha K, Mallaiah B. Effect of adenine

sulphate (ads) with cytokinins on multiple shoot production in Carissa

carandas (l.). Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2012;3(1):473-80.

Hasmah SN, Bhatt A, Keng CL. Micropropagation of Asam Karanda

(Carissa carandas Linn). Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci 2013;36(1):89-98.



How to Cite

Singh, A., and G. K. Uppal. “A REVIEW ON CARISSA CARANDASǧPHYTOCHEMISTRY,ETHNOǧPHARMACOLOGY, AND MICROPROPAGATION AS CONSERVATION STRATEGY”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, May 2015, pp. 26-30, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/5527.



Review Article(s)