SUNSCREENS: DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES
One of the major concerns affecting the human skin is the exposure to ultra-violet radiations (UVR) causing photo-damage and skin cancers. In order to provide preventive measures against such incidences, there is an increased demand for sun-protectants. Sun screening agents have shown beneficiary effects on the skin by reducing the exposure of UVR and its associated symptoms. Although various constituents have been recognized to have sun protecting activity, their safety and efficacy is still a concern. The United States Food and Drugs Administration (USFDA) and European Guidelines (EU) guidelines have made the sun protecting factor (SPF) and other such indices compulsory on the labels of such formulas to guide the consumers for better selection. The various ranges of radiations and skin types influence the mechanism of photoreaction and subsequent choice of the formulation. Apart from existing agents, certain novel sun-screening agents and technologies are now available to provide better protection to human populations.
2. Williams M, Ouhtit A. Towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in sunlight-induced melanoma. J Biomed Biotechnol 2005;2005:57â€“61.
3. Armstrong BK, Kricker A, English DR. Sun exposure and skin cancer. Australas J Dermatol 1997;Suppl 38:S1â€“S6.
4. Young AR. Cumulative effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin: cancer and photoaging. Semin Dermatol 1990;9:25â€“31.
5. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Skin ageing: postulated mechanisms and consequent changes in structure and function. Clin Geriatr Med 2001;17:617â€“30.
6. Gilchrest BA. A review of skin ageing and its medical therapy. Br J Dermatol 1996;135:867â€“75.
7. McDonald CJ. American cancer society perspective on the American college of preventive medicineâ€™s policy statements on skin cancer prevention and screening. CA Cancer J Clin 1998;48:229â€“31.
8. Ichihashi M, Ueda M, Budiyanto A, Bito T, Oka M, Fukunaga M, et al. UV-induced skin damage. Toxicology 2003;189:21â€“39.
9. Young AR. Cumulative effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin: cancer and photoaging. Semin Dermatol 1990;9:25â€“31.
10. Montagna W, Parker F, Tosti A. Skin: Your Owner's Manual Antonio Delfino (ed); 1985.
11. Darlenski R, Fluhr J. Influence of skin type, race, sex, and ana-tomic location on epidermal barrier function. Clin Dermatol 2012;30:269â€“73.
12. Sarna T, Swartz HM. The physical properties of melanins. In: The Pigmentary System: Physiology and Pathophysiology. JJ Nordland. Editor. Oxford University Press: Oxford; 1998. p. 333â€“57.
13. Peak MJ, Peak JG. Solar-ultraviolet-induced damage to DNA. Photodermatol 1989;6:1-15.
14. Slominski A, Wortsman J. Neuroendocrinology of the skin. Endocr Rev 2000;21:457â€“87.
15. Coelho SG, Choi W, Brenner M, Miyamura Y, Yamaguchi Y, Wolber R, et al. Short-and long-term effects of UV radiation on the pigmentation of human skin. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2009;14:32â€“5.
16. Polefka TG, Meyer TA, Agin PP, Bianchini RJ. Effects of solar radiation on the skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 2012;11:134â€“43.
17. Klar LR, Almutawa F, Lim HW, Hamzavi I. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2013;12:54â€“64.
18. Meyskens FL Jr, Farmer P, Fruehauf JP. Redox regulation in human melanocytes and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res 2001;14:148â€“54.
19. John Dâ€™Orazio, Jarrett S, Amaro-Ortiz A, Scott T. UV radiation and the skin. Int J Mol Sci 2013;14:12222â€“48.
20. Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Wood JM, Beazley WD, Gaze DC, Tobin DJ, et al. In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 1999;4:91â€“6.
21. Lademann J, Schanzer S, Jacobi U, Schaefer H, PflÃ¼cker F, Driller H, et al. Synergy effects between organic and inorganic UV filters in sunscreens. J Biomed Opt 2005;10:14008.
22. Gaspar LR, Campos PM. Photostability and efficacy studies of topical formulations containing UV-filters combination and vitamins A, C and E. Int J Pharm 2007;343:181-9.
23. Meinke MC, Haag SF, Schanzer S, Groth N, Gersonde I, Lademann. Radical protection by sunscreens in the infrared spectral range. Photochem Photobiol 2011;87:452-6.
24. Ferguson J, Brown MW, Hubbard AW, Shaw MI. Determination of sun protection factors. Correlation between in vivo human studies and an in vitro skin cast method. Int J Cosmet Sci 1998;10:117-29.
25. Rai R, Srinivas CR. Photoprotection. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2007;73:73â€“9.
26. Singhal M, Khanna S, Nasa A. Cosmeceuticals for the skin: an overview. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:16.
27. Stanfield JW. The proposed method for assesstng sunscreen photostability and broad-spectrum protection; 2012. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/00/Sep00/090700/c000574.pdf [Last accessed on 05 Sep 2005]
28. Kaidbey KH, Barnes AJ. Determination of UVA protection factors by means of immediate pigment darkening in normal skin. Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:262-6.
29. Fitzpatrick TB. The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol 1988;124:869-71.
30. Tanner PR. Sunscreen product formulation. Dermatol Clin 2006;24:53-62.
31. Vasantharaja D, Ramalingam V. Neurotoxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: biochemical and pathological approach in male wistar rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:75-81.
32. Antoniou C, Kosmadaki MG, Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD. Sunscreens--what's important to know. Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008;22:1110-8.
33. Nohynek GJ, Dufour EK, Roberts MS. Nanotechnology, cosmetics, and the skin: is there a health risk? Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2008;21:136-49.
34. Singh P, Nanda A. Enhanced sun protection of nano-sized metal oxide particles over conventional metal oxide particles: an in vitro comparative study. Int J Cosmet Sci 2014;36:273-83.
35. Benson H, Mohammed Y, Grice J, Roberts M. Formulation effects on topical nanoparticle penetration. Nanosci Dermatol 2016;115-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802926-8.00009-41
36. Gasparro FP, Mitchnick M, Nash J. A review of sunscreen safety and efficacy. Photochem Photobiol 1998;68:243-56.
37. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm259001.pdf [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2018]
38. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.327. [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2018]
39. Recommendations of 22 September 2006 on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto (2006/647/EC). Official Journal of the European Union.26.9.2006.265/39-265/43
40. Recommendations from the European Commission. Federal Office of Public Health. Recommendations from the European Commission; 2009. Available from: http://www.bag.admin.ch/ themen/lebensmittel/04861/05280/06242/index. html. [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2018].
41. https://www.standards.govt.nz/touchstone/consumer-safety/ 2012/jul/new-standard-on-sunscreen-will-protect-new-zealanders/. [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2018]
42. Hatahet T, Morille M, Hommoss A, Devoisselle JM, MÃ¼ller RH, BÃ©gu S. Liposomes, lipid nanocapsules and smartCrystalsÂ®: a comparative study of an effective quercetin delivery to the skin. Int J Pharm 2018;542:176-85.
43. Jain V, Shaikh S. Development and validation of novel RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of ellagic acid and quercetin in an ayurvedic formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:116-9.
44. Baldisserotto A, Buso P, Radice M, Dissette V, Lampronti I, Gambari R. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts as multifunctional ingredients for â€œnatural and organicâ€ sunscreens and photoprotective preparations. Molecules 2018;23:664.
45. SÃ´nia CCC, Detoni BC, Branco CRC, Botura MB, Branco A. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2015;25:413â€“8.
46. Fairhurst D. Surface coating and the optimization of microfine oxides in sunscreen formulations. A new technology for sunscreen development. Cosmetics Toiletries 1997;112:81-4.
47. Janjua NR, Mogensen B, Andersson AM. Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans. J Invest Dermatol 2004;123:57â€“61.
48. Amin RM, Elfeky SA, Verwanger T, Krammer B. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;63:46-51.
49. Tan MH, Burnett L, Snitch PJ. A pilot study on the percutaneous absorption of microfine titanium dioxide from sunscreens. Australas J Dermatol 1996;37:185-7.
50. Ashikaga T, Wada M, Kobayashi H, Mori M, Katsumura Y, Fukui H, et al. Effect of the photocatalytic activity of Ti02 on plasmid DNA. Mutat Res 2000;466:1-7.
51. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32009R1223. [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2018]
52. Azurdia RM, Pagliaro JA, Diffey BL, Rhodes LE. Sunscreen application by photosensitive patients is inadequate for protection. Br J Dermatol 1999;140:255â€“8.
53. Wright MW, Wright ST, Wagner RF. Mechanisms of sunscreen failure. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:781â€“4.
54. Gonzalez H. Percutaneous absorption with emphasis on sunscreens. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2010;9:482â€“8.
55. Norval M, Wulf HC. Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels? Br J Dermatol 2009;161:732â€“6.
56. Gillie O. A new government policy is needed for sunlight and vitamin D. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:1052â€“61.
57. Moan J, Dahlback A, Lagunova Z. Solar radiation, vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality in norway. Anticancer Res 2009;29:3501â€“9.
58. Sadrieh N, Wokovich AM, Gopee NV. Lack of significant dermal penetration of titanium dioxide from sunscreen formulations containing nano-and submicron-size TiO2 particles. Toxicol Sci 2010;115:156â€“66.
59. Nohynek GJ, Lademann J, Ribaud C, Roberts MS. Grey goo on the skin? Nanotechnology, cosmetic and sunscreen safety. Crit Rev Toxicol 2007;37:251â€“77.
60. Sadrieh N, Wokovich AM, Gopee NV. Lack of significant dermal penetration of titanium dioxide from sunscreen formulations containing nano-and submicron-size TiO2 particles. Toxicol Sci 2010;115:156â€“66.
61. Nohynek GJ, Lademann J, Ribaud C, Roberts MS. Grey goo on the skin? Nanotechnology, cosmetic and sunscreen safety. Crit Rev Toxicol 2007;37:251â€“77.
62. Fent K, Zenker A, Rapp M. Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in switzerland. Environ Pollution 2010;158:1817â€“24.
63. Loraine GA, Pettigrove ME. Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in southern California. Environ Sci Technol 2006;40:687â€“95.
64. Fent K, Kunz PY, Gomez E. UV Filters in the aquatic environment induce hormonal effects and affect fertility and reproduction in fish. Chimia 2008;62:368â€“75.