SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION OF CITRONELLA OIL FROM CYMBOPOGON WINTERIANUS USING TAGUCHI ORTHOGONAL ARRAY DESIGN
Objective: Optimum condition for the extraction of citronella oil from citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was investigated.
Methods: In order to determine the optimum extraction condition, a Taguchi experiment with L9 orthogonal array design was used. Effects of pressure, temperature and dynamic extraction time on citronella oil yield were investigated at levels ranging between 10-15 MPa, 35-45 Â°C and 60-180 min, respectively.
Results: The highest citronella oil yield (3.206%) was achieved at a factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 Â°C and 180 min. The obtained citronella oil yield from SC-CO2 extraction was higher than that of percolation as the solvent extraction method using ethanol, which gave a citronella oil yield of 1.4%. The experimental oil yield at optimum condition was in accordance to the values predicted by a computational process using Taguchi method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence interval indicates that extraction temperature is the most significant factor in maximizing citronella oil yield, followed by dynamic extraction time and pressure.
Conclusion: Optimization process for oil yield from SC-CO2extraction of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) was successfully performed using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design. This study demonstrates that Taguchi method was able to simplify the experimental procedure of SC-CO2 process.Â
2. Kakaraparthia PS, Srinivasa KVNS, Kumara JK, Kumara AN, Rajputa DK, Sarma VUM. Variation in the essential oil content and composition of Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) in relation to the time of harvest and weather conditions. Ind Crops Prod 2014;61:240-8.
3. Tandrasasmita OM, Lee JS, Baek SH, Tjandrawinata RR. Induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast cancer by DLBS1425, a Phaleria macrocarpa compound extract, via downregulation of PI3-kinase/AKT pathway. Cancer Biol Ther 2010;10:814-23.
4. Tandrasasmita OM, Wulan DD, Nailufar F, Sinambela J, Tjandrawinata RR. Glucose-lowering effect of DLBS3233 is mediated through phosphorylation of tyrosine and upregulation of PPARÎ³ and GLUT4 expression. Int J Gen Med 2011;4:345-57.
5. Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D, Susanto LW, Hendri P, Clarissa A. Symptomatic treatment of premenstrual syndrome and/or primary dysmenorrhea with DLBS1442, a bioactive extract of Phaleria macrocarpa. Int J Gen Med 2011;4:465-76.
6. Salea R, Widjojokusumo E, Veriansyah B, Tjandrawinata RR. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide. J Food Sci Technol 2014;51:2197-203.
7. Karsono AH, Tandrasasmita OM, Tjandrawinata RR. Molecular effects of bioactive fraction of Curcuma mangga (DLBS4847) as a down-regulator of 5Î±-reductase activity pathways in prostatic epithelial cells. Cancer Manag Res 2014;6:267-78.
8. Wany A, Kumar A, Nallapeta S, Jha S, Nigam VK, Pandey SM. Extraction and characterization of essential oil components based on geraniol and citronellol from Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). Plant Growth Regul 2014;73:133-45.
9. Timung R, Barik CR, Purohit S, Goud VV. Composition and anti-bacterial activity analysis of citronella oil obtained by hydrodistillation: process optimization study. Ind Crops Prod 2016;94:178-88.
10. Salea R, Widjojokusumo E, Hartanti AW, Veriansyah B, Tjandrawinata RR. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds using Taguchi method and full factorial design. Biochem Compd 2013. Doi:10.7243/2052-9341-1-1.
11. Chatterjee D, Bhattacharjee P. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of eugenol from clove buds. Food Bioprocess Technol 2013;6:2587-99.
12. Singh A, Ahmad A. Optimization of total essential oil yield of Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. by using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Int J Sci Eng Res 2015;6:318-27.
13. Salea R, Veriansyah B, Tjandrawinata RR. Optimization and scale-up process for supercritical fluids extraction of ginger oil from Zingiber officinale var. Amarum. J Supercrit Flu 2017;120:285-94.
14. McHugh M, Krukonis V. Supercritical fluid extraction: principles and practice. 2nd ed. United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994.
15. Ansari K, Goodarznia I. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from spearmint (Menthaspicata L.) leaves by using Taguchi methodology. J Supercrit Flu 2012;67:123-30.
16. Subroto E, Widjojokusumo E, Veriansyah B, Tjandrawinata RR. Supercritical CO2 extraction of candlenut oil: process optimization using taguchi orthogonal array and physicochemical properties of the oil. J Food Sci Technol 2017;54:1286-92.
17. Chuichulcherm S, Prommakort S, Srinophakun P, Thanapimmetha A. Optimization of capsaicin purification from Capsicum frutescens Linn. with column chromatography using Taguchi design. Ind Crops Prod 2013;44:473-9.
18. Montgomery DC. Design and analysis of experiments. 6th ed. Washington DC. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2005.
19. Reverchon E, Marco ID. Review: supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural matter. J Supercrit Fluids 2006;38:146-66.
20. Danh LT, Mammucari R, Truong P, Foster N. Response surface method applied to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Vetiveria zizanioides essential oil. Chem Eng J 2009;155:617-26.
21. Silva CF, Moura FC, Mendes MF, Pessoa FLP. Extraction of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) essential oil using supercritical CO2: experimental data and mathematical modeling. Braz J Chem Eng 2011;28:343-50.