FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ALPHA ARBUTIN SKIN LIGHTENING CREAM USING POLYACRYLATE BASE BY COLD PROCESS
Keywords:Alpha arbutin, Formulation, Cream, Polyacrylate, Cold process
Objective: The objective of this research was to formulate and evaluate alpha arbutin skin lightening cream using polyacrylate base by cold process.
Methods: Five formulas of alpha arbutin skin lightening cream were prepared with Polyacrylate Base with different polyacrylate concentrations as a cream base for each formula. The various concentrations of polyacrylate (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6%) was used as a cream base. The resulting preparation was then examined and observed for consistency, color, odor, and stability for 28 d of storage.
Results: The phase separation test results stated that the five cream formulas did not experience phase separation in 2500, 3000, and 3750 rpm centrifugations so that it could be concluded that the five cream formulas were stable in storage at room temperature for at least 12 mo. From the physical evaluation of cream preparations, it was found that the cream formula with 6% polyacrylate concentration gave the best stability results. Cream safety testing results stated that the cream did not irritate the skin of the wearer.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated alpha arbutin cream can be formulated using polyacrylate as a cream base, and in its manufacture, it can be carried out with a cold process.
Mescher AL. Junqueira's basic histology: text and atlas. Fourteenth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2007.
Junqueira CL, Carneiro J. Basic histology (Indonesian: Histologi Dasar). 10th Ed. Translated by Dr. Jan Tambayong. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 2007. p. 357-64.
Mukul S, Surabhi K, Atu N. Cosmeceuticals for the skin: an overview. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:1-6.
Webster I. What is Arbutin?. Available from: https://www.dermastore.co.za/what-is-arbutin. [Last accessed on 26 Aug 2018]
Sandberg S. Alpha-arbutinâ€“is it a safe alternative to hydroquinone? 2013. Available from: https://bestfadecreams.com/alpha-arbutin-safe-alternative/ [Last accessed on 26 Aug 2018]
Ochi E. Get to know alpha arbutin, the content of beauty products that are safe to brighten the face; 2018. Available from: https://journal.sociolla.com/beauty/mengenal-alpha-arbutin/. [Last accessed on 26 Aug 2018]
Sugimoto KS, Nishimura T, Nomura K, Sugimoto K, Kuriki T. Inhibitory effects of Î±-arbutin on melanin synthesis in cultured human melanoma cells and a three-dimensional human skin model. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27:510â€“4.
Cherney K. 8 treatment options for hyperpigmentation; 2018. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-care/hyperpigmentation-treatment. [Last accessed on 26 Aug 2018]
Indonesian Pharmacopeia (Indonesian: Farmakope Indonesia). 4th Ed. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI; 1995. p. 6.
Allen LV, Ansel HC. Anselâ€™s pharmaceutical drug forms and drug delivery system. 10th Ed. Walters Kluwer: Section IV; 2014.
Niazi SK. Handbook of pharmaceutical manufacturing formulations. Vol. 4. CRC Press; chapter 8 Guidance on Formulating semisolid drugs; 2004.
Rusmadi SZ, Ismail SNS, Praveena SM. Preliminary study on the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students in Malaysia. J Environ Public Health 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/591790
Harry RG. Harry's cosmetology, New York: Chemical Publishing Co; 1973. p. 594-8.
Cosmetics Info. C12-15 Alkyl benzoate. Available from: https://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/c12-15-alkyl-benzoate. [Last accessed on 12 Mar 2018]
Raposo S, Salgado A, GonÃ§alves L, Pinto PC, Urbano M, Ribeiro HM. Safety assessment and biological effects of a new cold processed SilEmulsion for a dermatological purpose. Biomed Res Int 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/181634
DepKes RI Indonesian Cosmetics Codex. (Indonesian: Kodeks kosmetika Indonesia), ed isi II, Vol. II; 1997. p. 33.
Dmdm Hydantoin. Available from: http://www.sumberberliankimia.com/product/dmdm-hydantoin-p313132.aspx [Last accessed on 16 Jan 2018]
Wulandari P. Stability test of physical and chemical cream ethanol extracts fern (Nephrolepis falcata (Cav) C. Chr), thesis. Jakarta, Indonesia: National Islamic University of Syarif Hidayatullah; 2016.
Preparation of cold cream. Available from: https://labmonk.com/preparation-of-cold-cream [Last accessed on Aug 2018]
Sahu T, Patel T, Sahu S, Gidwani B. Skin cream as topical drug delivery system: a review. J Pharm Biol Sci 2016;4:149-54.
Bennett J. Cosmetics and Skin; 2018. Available from: https://cosmeticsandskin.com/index.php. [Last accessed on Aug 2018]
Novakovich J. A guide to color additives in cosmetics. Available from: https://theecowell.com/blogs/well/color-additives-in-cosmetics. [Last accessed on 28 Aug 2018]
Stat Trek. Experimental design. Available from: https://stattrek.com/experiments/experimental-design.aspx. [Last accessed on Aug 2018]
De Muth JE. Basic statistics and pharmaceutical statistical applications. 2nd ed. Boca Raton FL. Chapman and Hall/CRC; 2006. p. 229â€“59.
Trench BLP. Do pH levels in beauty products really matter? Available from: https://www.refinery29.com/ph-levels-in-beauty-products. [Last accessed on 28 Aug 2018]
Leonardi GR, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG. Study of pH variation on the skin using cosmetic formulation s with and without vitamins A, E or ceramide: by a non-invasive method, An Bras Dermatol; 2002. p. 77.
Woolf AD, Shaw JS. Nail primer cosmetics: correlations between product pH and adequacy of labeling. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:827-32.
Mixer Direct. How to measure the viscosity of cosmetics. Available from: http://blog.mixerdirect.com/how-to-measure-the-viscosity-of-cosmetics. [Last accessed on 28 Aug 2018]
PCE Instruments. Viscometer in Cosmetics. Available from: https://www.pce-instruments.com/f/english/media/viscometer-cosmetics.pdf. [Last accessed on 28 Aug 2018]
Maqbool A, Mishra MK, Pathak S, Kesharwani A, Kesharwani A. Semisolid dosage forms manufacturing: tools, critical process parameters, strategies, optimization, and recent advances. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2017;7:882-93.
Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. The theory and practice industrial pharmacy. 4th Ed. India: CBS Publishers and Distributor Pvt Ltd. e-book; 2016.
Juntawong S, Charoenteeraboon J, Chansiri G, Tuntarawongsa T, Katewongsa P, Phaechamud T. Cream prepared from emulsifying polymer: effect of oil content, stirring intensity and mixing temperature. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;1:360-5.
Kartini K, Fitriani EW, Winarjo BM, Islamie R. Formulation and pH-physical stability evaluation of gel and cream of Plantago major Leaves Extract. Media Pharm Indonesiana 2017;1:174-80.
Bajaj S, Singla D, Sakhuja N. Stability testing of pharmaceutical products. J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2:129-38.
Chang RK, Raw A, Lionberger R, Yu L Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products. AAPS J 2013;15:41â€“52.
Cosmetics Europe. Guidelines on stability testing of cosmetics products. Available from: https://www.cosmeticseurope.eu/ Guidelines_on_Stability_Testing_of_Cosmetics_C. [Last accessed on 29 Aug 2018]
Tozettoa JT, Tozettoa AT, Hoshinoa BT, Andrighettia CR, Ribeiro EB, Cavalheirob L, et al. Extract of Punica granatum L.: an alternative to BHT as an antioxidant in semisolid emulsified systems, Quim. Nova 2017;40:97-104.