APPLICATION OF IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS IN MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF TRANS-RESVERATROL FROM GNETUM GNEMON L. SEEDS

  • Arif Arrahman Department of Pharmaceutical-Medicinal Chemistry and Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Andini Gahayati Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Dewi Rizky Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Satya Muslimah Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Abdul Mun’im Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to compare the efficiency of three imidazole-based ionic liquids (ILs) in the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of
trans-resveratrol from Gnetum gnemon seeds.
Methods: Trans-resveratrol was quantitatively extracted using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([hmim]Br), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium
chloride ([bmim]Cl), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) in a microwave oven. Extraction parameters, including solvent
concentration, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology on the basis of the Box–Behnken design.
A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine resveratrol content with acetonitrile: water (75:25 v/v) as
the mobile phase. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method.
Results: Under optimal conditions, the resveratrol content when extraction was performed using [hmim]Br, [bmim]Cl, and [bmim]BF4 was 0.068,
0.059, and 0.038 mg/g dry weight, respectively, and total phenolic content was 0.647, 1.736, and 1.436 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively.
Conclusions: IL-based MAE using [hmim]Br provided the highest trans-resveratrol yield from melinjo seeds and can be used as an alternative method
for this purpose.

Keywords: Gnetum gnemon L., Ionic liquid, Melinjo, Microwave-assisted extraction, Response surface methodology, Resveratrol.

References

1. Kato E, Tokunaga Y, Sakan F. Stilbenoids isolated from the seeds of
melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) and their biological activity. J Agric Food
Chem 2009;57:2544-9.
2. Kunimasa K, Ohta T, Tani H, Kato E, Eguchi R, Kaji K, et al.
Resveratrol derivative rich melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract
suppresses multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and
tumor angiogenesis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55:1730-4.
3. Konno H, Kanai Y, Katagiri M, Watanabe T, Mori A, Ikuta T, et al.
Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract decreases serum uric acid
levels in nonobese Japanese males: A randomized controlled study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:589169.
4. Yao J, Wang JY, Liu L, Li YX, Xun AY, Zeng WS, et al. Anti-oxidant
effects of resveratrol on mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis. Arch
Med Res 2010;41:288-94.
5. Rai G, Mishra S, Suman S, Shukla Y. Resveratrol improves the
anticancer effects of doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo models:
A mechanistic insight. Phytomedicine 2016;23:233-42.
6. Yu P, Dong L, Zhang Y, Chen W, Xu S, Wang Z, et al. Design, synthesis
and biological activity of novel asymmetric C66 analogs as antiinflammatory
agents for the treatment of acute lung injury. Eur J Med
Chem 2015;94:436-46.
7. Zhang Z, Liu L, Li H, Yao S. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation
of uniformly sized core-shell imprinted microspheres for the separation
trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed. Appl Surf Sci 2009;255:9327‑32.
8. Zhang Q, Bian Y, Shi Y, Zheng S, Gu X, Zhang D, et al. An economical
and efficient technology for the extraction of resveratrol from peanut
(Arachis hypogaea) sprouts by multi-stage countercurrent extraction.
Food Chem 2015;179:15-25.
9. Routray W, Orsat V. Microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids:
A review. Food Bioprocess Technol 2012;5:409-24.
10. Mun’im A, Munadhil MA, Puspitasari N, Azminah R, Yanuar A.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of melinjo (Gnetum
gnemon, L.) seed extracts and molecular docking of its stilbene
constituents. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:243-8.
11. Puli AS, Kumar VK, Regalla VR, Chatterjee A. Microwaveassisted
synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of
phenylacrylamide derivatives of triazoles derived from oxazolones.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:285-90.
12. Xu W, Chu K, Li H, Zhang Y, Zheng H, Chen R, et al. Ionic liquidbased
microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia
championii (Benth.) benth. Molecules 2012;17:14323-35.
13. Yang L, Sun X, Yang F, Zhao C, Zhang L, Zu Y. Application of ionic
liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins from
Larix gmellini Bark. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:5163-78.
14. Du F, Xiao X, Li G. Application of ionic liquids in the microwaveassisted
extraction of trans-resveratrol from rhizoma polygoni cuspidati.
J Chromatogr A 2007;1140:56-62.
15. Rostagno M, Prado J. Natural Product Extraction: Principles and
Applications. United Kingdom: Royal Society of Chemistry;2013.
16. Souto AA, Carneiro MC, Seferin M, Senna MJ, Conz A, Gobbi K.
Determination of trans-resveratrol concentrations in Brazilian red
wines by HPLC. J Food Compos Anal 2001;14:441-5.
Statistics
113 Views | 66 Downloads
How to Cite
Arrahman, A., Gahayati, A., Rizky, D., Muslimah, S., & Mun’imA. (2018). APPLICATION OF IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS IN MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF TRANS-RESVERATROL FROM GNETUM GNEMON L. SEEDS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(1), 39-43. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018.v10s1.09
Section
Original Article(s)