• SITI KHAERUNNISA Departement of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • HANIK BADRIYAH HIDAYATI Departement of Neurology, Airlangga University, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • JONI SUSANTO Departement of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • YUANI SETIAWATI Departement of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • SUHARTATI SUHARTATI Departement of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya, Indonesia.


Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the atheroprotective effect of Solanum betaceum ethanol extract toward carotid artery
intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke.
Methods: Thirty adult Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar were divided into five groups and exposed to cigarette smoke, 3 pc cigarette/day and
simultaneously administered with S. betaceum in Group K2, K3, and K4 (100 mg/kg b.w/day; 200 mg/kg b.w/day; and 400 mg/kg b.w/day),
respectively. The duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days. Blood was withdrawn from the cardiac to determine the MDA level. Histological
slide from carotid artery intima-media was collected to determine cIMT.
Results: S. betaceum ethanol extract administration could significantly prevent the development of atherosclerosis due to oxidative stress by
decreasing the level of MDA (p<0.05) and reducing the degree of cIMT changes (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The present study found that S. betaceum ethanol extract could prevent the development of atherosclerosis due to smoke exposure
through the reduction of the MDA level, i.e., the marker of oxidative stress, which is associated with the reduced of cIMT changes. However, further
studies on other bioactivity of S. betaceum as an antioxidant are warranted.

Keywords: Solanum betaceum, Malondialdehyde, cIMT, Atherosclerosis, Smoke exposure


1. Andhuvan G, Ayyappan P, Sahana C, Poovizhi S, Sivasakthi K.
Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients
with cardiovascular risk. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;10:99.
2. Thomas S, Rich MW. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of
heart failure in the elderly. Heart Fail Clin 2007;3:381-7.
3. Saxena M, Saxena J, Pradhan A. Review article. Int J Pharm Sci Rev
4. Grassi D, Desideri G, Ferri C. Flavonoids: Antioxidants against
atherosclerosis. Nutrients 2010;2:889-902.
5. Coll B, Feinstein SB. Carotid intima-media thickness measurements:
Techniques and clinical relevance. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2008;10:444-50.
6. Libby P, Ridker PM, Hansson GK. Progress and challenges in
translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature 2011;473:317-25.
7. Mahdavi-Roshan M, Zahedmehr A, Mohammad-Zadeh A,
Sanati HR, Shakerian F, Firouzi A, et al. Effect of garlic powder
tablet on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with coronary
artery disease: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Nutr Health
8. MiYang J, HyeonCheol J, Lee K, Yim J. The acute effect of smoking
a single cigarette on vascular status, SpO2, and stress level. Med Sci
Monit 2014;20:601-7.
9. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis K. Tobacco smoke: Involvement
of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of
oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other
respirable particles. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009;6:445-62.
10. Dellinger B, Khachatryan L, Masko S, Lomnicki S. Free radicals in
tobacco smoke free radicals in tobacco smoke. Mini Rev Org Chem
11. Moore KP, Darley-Usmar V, Morrow J, Roberts LJ 2nd. Formation of
F2-isoprostanes during oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein and
plasma by peroxynitrite. Circ Res 1995;77:335-41.
12. Ballinger SW, Patterson C, Yan CN, Doan R, Burow DL, Young CG,
et al. Hydrogen peroxide- and peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial
DNA damage and dysfunction in vascular endothelial and smooth
muscle cells. Circ Res 2000;86:960-6.
13. Fernández-Robredo P, Rodríguez JA, Sádaba LM, Recalde S, García-
Layana A. Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal
abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia.
J Nutr Biochem 2008;19:40-8.
14. Barakoti M. Carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery
disease: An Indian perspective. Nepal Heart J 2018;15:9-15.
15. Lapatta N, Loho L, Poppy L. Gambaran histopatologi aorta tikus wistar
yang dipapar asap rokok. J e Biomedik 2013;1:1019-22.
16. Halenka M, Vaverkova H, Hutyra M, Karasek D, Slavik L, Novotny D,
et al. Detection of early atherosclerosis using the ultrasound parameter
of the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in families
with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Int Angiol 2004;23:230-7.
17. McCullough ML, Peterson JJ, Patel R, Jacques PF, Shah R, Dwyer JT.
Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective
cohort of US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:454-64.
18. Suhartati S, Khaerunnisa S. Flavonoid. Surabaya: Airlangga University
Press; 2016.
19. Khaerunnisa S, Kusumastuti K, Aminah N, Mustika A, Suhartati S.
Mechanism of Solanum betaceum to prevent memory impairment in
cigarette smoke exposed rat. Int J App Pharm, 2019;11:20-4.
20. Kandimalla R, Kalita S, Choudhury B, Kotoky J. Review article a
review on anti-diabetic potential of genus Solanum (Solanaceae).
J Drug Deliv Ther 2015;5:24-7.
21. Mohamed O, Saidb M, Alib Z, Hanan A, Heba S. Improving effect
of dietary oat bran supplementation on oxidative stress induced by
hyperlipidemic diet. Researcher 2011;3:1-10.
22. Mazzone P, Tierney W, Hossain M, Puvenna V, Janigro D,
Cucullo L. Pathophysiological impact of cigarette smoke exposure on
the cerebrovascular system with a focus on the blood-brain barrier:
Expanding the awareness of smoking toxicity in an underappreciated
area. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010;7:4111-26.
23. Hertzog DI, Tica OS. Molecular mechanisms underlying the
anti- cancerous action of flavonoids. Curr Health Sci J 2012;38:145-9.
24. Patel JM. A review of potential health benefits of flavonoids. Lethbridge
Undergrad Res J 2010;3:2-6.
25. Halliwell B. Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a
fundamental theme of aerobic life. Plant Physiol 2006;141:312-22.
26. Stefek M. Natural flavonoids as potential multifunctional agents in
prevention of diabetic cataract. Interdiscip Toxicol 2011;4:69-77.
27. Sandhar H, Kumar B, Prasher S, Tiwari P. A review of phytochemistry
and pharmacology of flavonoids. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:25-41.
28. Bauer M, Caviezel S, Teynor A, Erbel R, Mahabadi AA, Schmidt-
Trucksäss A. Carotid intima-media thickness as a biomarker of
subclinical atherosclerosis. Swiss Med Wkly 2012;142:w13705.
29. Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids:
An overview. ScientificWorldJournal 2013;2013:162750.
30. Middleton E Jr., Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant
flavonoids on mammalian cells: Implications for inflammation, heart
disease, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev 2000;52:673-751.
31. Rezzani R, Porteri E, De Ciuceis C, Bonomini F, Rodella LF, Paiardi S,
et al. Effects of melatonin and pycnogenol on small artery structure
and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension
159 Views | 115 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)