• SITI KHAERUNNISA Departement of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • HANIK BADRIYAH HIDAYATI Departement of Neurology, Airlangga University, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • JONI SUSANTO Departement of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • YUANI SETIAWATI Departement of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • SUHARTATI SUHARTATI Departement of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya, Indonesia.


Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the atheroprotective effect of Solanum betaceum ethanol extract toward carotid artery
intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke.
Methods: Thirty adult Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar were divided into five groups and exposed to cigarette smoke, 3 pc cigarette/day and
simultaneously administered with S. betaceum in Group K2, K3, and K4 (100 mg/kg b.w/day; 200 mg/kg b.w/day; and 400 mg/kg b.w/day),
respectively. The duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days. Blood was withdrawn from the cardiac to determine the MDA level. Histological
slide from carotid artery intima-media was collected to determine cIMT.
Results: S. betaceum ethanol extract administration could significantly prevent the development of atherosclerosis due to oxidative stress by
decreasing the level of MDA (p<0.05) and reducing the degree of cIMT changes (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The present study found that S. betaceum ethanol extract could prevent the development of atherosclerosis due to smoke exposure
through the reduction of the MDA level, i.e., the marker of oxidative stress, which is associated with the reduced of cIMT changes. However, further
studies on other bioactivity of S. betaceum as an antioxidant are warranted.

Keywords: Solanum betaceum, Malondialdehyde, cIMT, Atherosclerosis, Smoke exposure


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