• Kiran Bhise Principal & Professor
  • Shadab Assistant Professor, Allana College of Pharmacy, Pune
  • Ghazala Associate Professor, Unani Medical College, Azam Campus, Pune


Development of effective drug delivery in the treatment of psoriasis is the major challenge for its successful management. The aim of the present work was to develop and assess the potential of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) enriched with the powdered leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (AE), Lawsonia inermis (LE) and fruit extract of Mallotus philippensis (ME).  Drug loaded NLCs were prepared via hot homogenization technique by adopting 23 factorial design with factors X1 as concentration of lipids, X2 concentration of surfactants and X3 being number of homogenization cycle. The responses Y1 and Y2 were particle size and zeta potential. The optimized batch was obtained from Surface response plot and was found within the nanosized range with relatively low polydispersity index and zeta potential of -20mV. The optimized batch of NLCs was subjected to % entrapment efficiency which was found to be 98.97%, 96.99% and 99.25% and % drug loading was found to be 21.84%, 8.55% and 87.91% respectively for AE, LE and ME. The SEM images showed the spherical vesicular structures of drugs loaded NLCs. The in vitro diffusion of drugs from the NLCs followed initial burst release thereafter sustained release for 24 hours. The AE, LE and ME loaded NLCs proved to possess anti-lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide scavenging activities, cytotoxicity on HaCat cell lines, DNA fragmentation on HaCat cell lines which are biomarker in pathogenesis of psoriasis. The results of Mouse Tail and Rat ultraviolet ray B photodermatitis models for Psoriasis supported anti-psoriatic potential of AE, LE and ME loaded NLCs.

Keywords: Psoriasis, Drug Extracts, Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, Evaluation


1. Y. Madhusudan Rao, Shayeda, Cosmeceuticals. PharmaMed Press, 2012, 194-253.
2. Magina S, Julia Vide. Moderate to severe psoriasis treatment challenges through the era of biological drugs. An Bras Dermatol. 2017; 92(5):668-74.
3. Chandrasekar R, Sivagami B. Alternative Treatment for Psoriasis -A Review. Int J Res Dev Pharm L Sci Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci. 2016;5(4):2188–97.
4. Lowes, M.A., A.M. Bowcock, J.G. Krueger. Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis. Nature. 2007; 445:866-873.
5. Patricia M. Witman., Topical therapies for localized Psoriasis. Myo Clin Proc. 2001; 76: 943- 949.
6. Raza K, Singh B, Dogra S. Novel drug delivery systems in topical treatment of psoriasis: rigors and vigors. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 76(6):612-21. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.72451.
7. Agarwal R, Katare OP, Vyas SP. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antipsoriatic drug dithranol. Int J Pharm 2001; 228: 43-52.
8. Ali MF, Salah M, Rafea M, Saleh N. Liposomal methotrexate hydrogel for treatment of localized psoriasis: preparation, characterization and laser targeting. Med Sci Monit 2008;14: PI66-74.
9. Abdelbary AA, Abou Ghaly MH. Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: Application of Box-Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation, and in-vivo skin deposition study. Int J Pharm 2015;485:235-43
10. Trapasso E, Cosco D, Celia C, Fresta M, Paolino D. Retinoids: new use by innovative drug-delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2009; 6:465-83.
11. Umalkar DG, Rajesh KS. Formulation and evaluation of liposomal gel for the treatment of psoriasis. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2013; 4: 22-32.
12. Purushothamrao K, Khaliq K, Sagare P, Patil S K, Kharat S S, Alpana.K; Formulation and evaluation of vanishing cream for scalp psoriasis. Int J PharmaSci Tech. 2010; 4(1), 32-31.
13. Su YH, Fang JY. Drug delivery and formulations for the topical treatment of psoriasis. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2008; 5:235-49.
14. Pradhan M, Singh D, Singh MR. Novel colloidal carriers for psoriasis: Current issues, mechanistic insight and novel delivery approaches. J Controlled Release 2013; 170: 380-95.
15. Suresh PK, Singh P, Saraf S. Novel topical drug carriers as a tool for the treatment of psoriasis: Progress and advances. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 7:138-47.
16. Dubey V, Mishra D, Dutta T, Nahar M, Saraf DK, Jain NK. Dermal and transdermal delivery of an anti-psoriatic agent via ethanolic liposomes. J Controlled Release 2007; 123:148-54.
17. Zhang YT, Shen LN, Wu ZH, Zhao JH, Feng NP. Comparison of ethosomes and liposomes for skin delivery of psoralen for psoriasis therapy. Int J Pharm 2014; 471:449-52.
18. Sah AK, Jain SK, Pandey RS. Microemulsion based hydrogel formulation of methoxsalen for the effective treatment of psoriasis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:140-5.
19. Behera J, Keservani RK, Yadav A, Tripathi M, Chadoker A. Methoxsalen loaded chitosan coated microemulsion for effective treatment of psoriasis. Int J Drug Delivery 2010; 2:159-67.
20. Lin YK, Huang ZR, Zhuo RZ, Fang JY. The combination of calcipotriol and methotrexate in nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 2010; 5: 117-28.
21. Lapteva M, Mondon K, Möller M, Gurny R, Kalia YN. Polymeric micelle nanocarriers for the cutaneous delivery of tacrolimus: a targeted approach for the treatment of psoriasis. Mol Pharm 2014; 11: 2989-3001.
22. Fang JY, Fang CL, Liu CH, Su YH. Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 70: 633-40.
23. Pople PV, Singh KK. Development and evaluation of colloidal modified nano lipid carrier: application to topical delivery of tacrolimus, Part II–in vivo assessment, drug targeting, efficacy, and safety in treatment for atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013; 84:72-83.
24. Pinto MF, Moura CC, Nunes C, Segundo MA, Costa Lima SA, Reis S. A new topical formulation for psoriasis: development of methotrexate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm. 2014; 477(1-2): 519-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.10.067. Epub 2014 Nov 1.
25. Raza K, Singh B, Lohan S, Sharma G, Negi P, Yachha Y, et al. Nano-lipoidal carriers of tretinoin with enhanced percutaneous absorption, photostability, biocompatibility and anti-psoriatic activity. Int J Pharm. 2013; 456:65-72.
26. Surya Tej KVM, Moin A, Gowda D V., Anjali, Karunakar G, Patel NP, et al. Nano structured lipid carrier based drug delivery system. J Chem Pharm Res. 2016;8(2):627–43.
27. Gungor S, Rezigue M. Nanocarriers Mediated Topical Drug Delivery for Psoriasis Treatment. Curr Drug Metab. 2017; 18(5):454-468.
28. Gazi Shaikh, Sadath Ali, S Y Talmale, Ulhas.S.Surwase, Kadam Bhalchandra, Shaikh Luqman. Alternative Medicine for Psoriasis – Natural Herbal Ayurvedic Treatment-A Review. International Journal of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine. 2012: 2?(3) 455–463.
29. Kaur T. Formulation Development of Anti-psoriatic Topical Babchi Oil Emulgel Formulation Development of Anti-psoriatic Topical Babchi Oil Emulgel. Research & Reviews: Journal of Herbal Science. 2017; 2(1): 1-14.
30. Chandrasekar R, Sivagami B. Alternative Treatment for Psoriasis -A Review. Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci. 2016;5(4):2188–97.
31. Naik MR, Bhattacharya A, Behera R, Agrawal D, Dehury S, Kumar S. Study of anti-inflammatory effect of Azadirachta indica seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on infected albino rats. 2014;1(3):66–9.
32. Wiem A, Smail A, Wissem M, Faleiro M, Miguel M. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of leaf, flower and seed aqueous extracts of lawsonia inermis from tunisia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014; 6 (5): 445–52.
33. Annavarapu T Rao, Renuka P, Akhil P, Divya P, P DP. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Combination of Ethanol Extracts of Azadirachta Indica (Azadirachta indica) and Lawsonia Inermis ( Lawsonia inermis ). 2016; 9(5):9–11.
34. Gangwar M, Gautam MK, Ghildiyal S, Nath G, Goel RK. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol [Internet]. 2016; 5(1):14–21.
35. Ghazanavi, Khaklid. Amraz-e-Jildaur Ilaj-e-Nabvi. Farid Book Pvt Ltd; 2004. P. 123-136, 214-217, 257, 276.
36. Jayakumar Jerobin, Pooja Makwana, RS Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2015; 10:77-86.
37. V. Vijayan, Shaik Aafreen, S. Sakthivel, K. Ravindra Reddy. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne. Journal of Acute Disease; 2013:282-286.
38. Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Estefânia V. R. Campos, Jhones L. Oliveira, Camila M. G. Silva, Natalia Bilesky-José, Mariana Guilger, Johann Troost, Halley C. Oliveira, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Leonardo F. Fraceto & Renata de Lima. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, and Toxicity Evaluation. Scientific Reports; 2017: 1-12.
39. S.C.G. Kiruba Daniel, N Mahalakshmi2b, J Sandhiya, Kasi Nehru , Muthusamy Sivakumar. Rapid synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Henna extract for the fabrication of Photoabsorption Enhanced Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (PEDSSC). Advanced Materials Research. 2013; 678:349-360.
40. Mahmood Barani, Mohammad Mirzaei, Masoud Torkzadeh-Mahani, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi. Lawsone-loaded Niosome and its antitumor activity in MCF-7 breast Cancer cell line: a Nano-herbal treatment for Cancer. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 26:11–17.
41. Qiang Xia, Hongxia Wang. Preparation and characterization of Co-Enzyme Q10 loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as Delivery System for Cosmetic Component. NSTI- Nanotech. 2010; 3: 498-501.
42. Banker GS, Rhodes CT. Modern Pharmaceutics. 3rd edition. Optimization Techniques in Pharmaceutical Formulation and Processing. Marcel Dekker. 1996:607.
43. Uprit S, Kumar Sahu R, Roy A, Pare A. Preparation and characterization of minoxidil loaded nanostructured lipid carrier gel for effective treatment of alopecia. Saudi Pharm J. 2013; 21(4): 379–85.
44. Fouad EA, Yassin AEB, Alajami HN. Characterization of celecoxib-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles formulated with tristearin and softisan 100. Trop J Pharm Res. 2015; 14 (2): 205–10.
45. Souto EB, Wissing SA, Barbosa CM, Müller RH. Development of a controlled release formulation based on SLN and NLC for topical clotrimazole delivery. 2004;278:71–7.
46. Chander Prakash Dora, Shailendra Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar. Development and Characterization of nanoparticles of Glibenclamide by solvent displacement method. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research. 2010; 67(3): 283-290.
47. Gaba B, Fazil M, Khan S, Ali A, Baboota S, Ali J. Nanostructured lipid carrier system for topical delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride. Bull Fac Pharmacy, Cairo Univ. 2015;53(2):147–59.
48. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979; 95: 351-8.
49. Panasenko OM, Evgina SA, Driomina ES, et al. Hypochlorite induces lipid peroxidation in blood lipoproteins and phospholipid liposomes. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995; 19: 133-40.
50. Yokozawa T., Wang S.T., Chen P.C, Hattori M. Inhibition of Nitric oxide release by an aqueous extract of Tinospora tuberculata. Phytother Res. 2000; 14: 51-53.
51. T. Mosmann. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1983: 12-16.
52. Colombo I, Sangiovanni E, Maggio R, Mattozzi C, Zava S, Corbett Y, et al. HaCaT Cells as a Reliable In Vitro Differentiation Model to Dissect the Inflammatory / Repair Response of Human Keratinocytes. Medistors of Inflammation. 2017;2017:1–12.
53. Li Z, Yu J, Liu L, Wei Z, Ehrlich ES. Coxsackie virus A16 Infection Induces Neural Cell and Non-Neural Cell Apoptosis In Vitro. PLOS One. 2014; 9(10): 1-10.
54. Takada M, Noguchi A, Sayama Y, Kurohane Kaneko Y, Ishikawa T. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated initial Ca(2+) mobilization constitutes a triggering signal for hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in INS-1 ?-cells. Biol Pharm Bull.2011; 34(7):954-8.
55. Singhal M, Kansara N. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Psoriasis in Mouse Tail Model. Pharmaceutical Crops. 2012; 3: 1-6.
56. Manmohan Singhal and Niraj Kansara. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats. ISRN Dermatol. 2012; 2012: 16.
57. Nakaguma H, Kambara T, Yamamoto T. Rat ultraviolet ray B photodermatitis: an experimental model of psoriasis vulgaris. Int J Exp Pathol. 1995;76(1):65–73.
58. Nagamani M, Prahaladu P, Vijayababu PVSS, Ashalata K, Kusuma Kumari P, Kumari KL. Lipid Peroxidation Product As A Marker of Oxidative Stress In Psoriasis -A Case Control Study In North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. IOSR J Dent Med Sci Ver II. 2015;14 (5): 2279–861.
59. Ignacio N.R.S., Ferreira P.L.J., Almeida B.M., Kubelka F.C. (2001) Nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo treated with Phyllanthus tenellus extracts, J. Ethnopharmacol. 74: 181-187.
8 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Bhise, K., Khan, S., & Mulla, G. (2020). TOPICAL ANTI-PSORIATIC NANOPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM . International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(2). Retrieved from
Original Article(s)