GREEN VORTEX-ASSISTED IONIC LIQUID-BASED DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION FOR ENRICHMENT AND DETERMINATION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD IN WATER, VEGETABLES AND TOBACCO SAMPLES

  • RAGAA EL-SHEIKH Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt
  • WAFAA S. HASSAN Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
  • SARA H. IBRAHIM hemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt
  • AMIRA M. YOUSSEF hemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt
  • AYMAN A. GOUDA Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt, Occupational Health Department, Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm AL-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objective: An eco-friendly, simple and sensitive vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (VA-IL-DLLµE) has been proposed to enrich and determine trace levels of cadmium (Cd2+ ) and lead (Pb2+ ) ions in water, vegetables and tobacco samples, prior to its FAAS determination.


Methods: The proposed method based on utilization of ionic liquid (IL) (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [HMIM][FAP]) as an extraction solvent for both ions after the complexation with 4,5-dihydroxy-3-phenylazo-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (Chromotrope 2R) at pH 6.5. The impact of different analytical parameters on microextraction efficiency was optimized.


Results: In the ranges of 1.0–300 and 2.0-400 μg/ml, the calibration graphs were linear. The limits of detection were 0.3 and 0.6 μg/ml for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 100. The relative standard deviation (RSD %)<3.0%, which indicates the proposed method has high precision.


Conclusion: The proposed VA-IL-DLLµE method was developed and applied for the estimation of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ion content in various water, vegetables and tobacco samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. The obtained recovery values showed good agreement with the certified values.

Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, Vortex-assisted, Ionic liquid, Microextraction, Water, Vegetables and tobacco samples

Author Biography

AYMAN A. GOUDA, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt, Occupational Health Department, Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm AL-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Pharmaceutical Analysis

References

1. Sarkar BM. Heavy metals in the environment, Marcel Dekker. Inc, New York; 2002.
2. Savio M, Parodi B, Martinez LD, Smichowski P, Gil RA. On-line solid-phase extraction of Ni and Pb using carbon nanotubes and modified carbon nanotubes coupled to ETAAS. Talanta 2011;85:245-51.
3. Gouda AA, Summan AM, Amin AH. Development of cloud-point extraction method for preconcentration of trace quantities of cobalt and nickel in water and food samples. RSC Adv 2016;6:94048-57.
4. Falahi E, Hedaiati R, Ghiasvand AR. Survey of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, lead, and cadmium in rice samples grown in Iran. Food Addit Contam 2010;3:80-3.
5. Butler OT, Cairns WRL, Cook JM, Davidson CM. Atomic spectrometry update environmental analysis. J Anal Atom Spectrom 2013;28:177-216.
6. Alfasi ZB, Wai CM. Preconcentration techniques for trace elements. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; 1992.
7. EL Sheikh R, Gouda AA, Abdul Fattah H, Al Amin E. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of cobalt in water samples?. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:213-21.
8. EL Sheikh R, Gouda AA, Mostafa AH, Salah El Din N. Development of efficient cloud point extraction method for cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of nickel in water samples? using 2-(benzothiazolylazo)orcinol. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:176-84.
9. Soylak M, Soylak Z. Multiwalled carbon nanotube impregnated with tartrazine: Solid-phase extractant for Cd(II) and Pb(II). J Ind Eng Chem 2014,20:581-5.
10. ALOthman ZA, Habilaa M, Yilmaz E, Soylak M. Solid phase extraction of Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from food samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes impregnated with 4-(2-thiazolylazo)resorcinol. Microchim Acta 2012,177:397-403.
11. Gouda AA, Al Ghannam SM. Impregnated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an efficient sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of trace amounts of heavy metal ions in food and water samples. Food Chem 2016;202:409-16.
12. Soylak M, Erbas Z. Vortex-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) on the Nitroso–R salt impregnated magnetic ambersorb 563 for their separation, preconcentration and determination by FAAS. Int J Environ Anal Chem 2018;98:799-810.
13. Soylak M, Temeltas A. Solid-phase extraction of Pb(II) and Cd(II) as 2,9 dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline chelates on activated carbon cloth in environmental samples and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Int J Environ Anal Chem 2018;96:862-71.
14. Silva ES, Correia LO, dos Santos LO, Vieira EVS, Lemos VA. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead and nickel in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Microchim Acta 2012;178:269-75.
15. Shaikh R, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Akhtar A, Baig JA. An environmental friendly enrichment method for microextraction of cadmium and lead in groundwater samples: impact on biological sample of children. Chemosphere 2019;237:124444.
16. Talaee M, Lorestani B, Ramezani M, Cheraghi M, Jameh Bozorgi S. Tandem dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry for rapid determination of lead(II) and cadmium(II) ions in environmental water samples. Int J Environ Anal Chem 2019;99:1235-46.
17. El Sheikh R, Atwa MA, Abdullah AA, Gouda AA. A green vortex-assisted ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace cadmium in food samples. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;13:178-84.
18. Jalbani N, Soylak M. Determination of cadmium and lead in water and food by organic drop microextraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Instrum Sci Technol 2015;43:573-87.
19. Alahabadi A, Rastegar A, Esrafili A, Rezai Z, Bandegharaei AH, Farzadkia M. Solidified floating organic drop microextraction for pre-concentration and trace monitoring of cadmium ions in environmental food and water samples. J Iran Chem Soc 2017;14:1725-33.
20. Bilal M, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Arain MB, Baig JA, Khan M, et al. Application of conventional and modified cloud point extraction for simultaneous enrichment of cadmium, lead and copper in lake water and fish muscles. J Ind Eng Chem 2016;40:137-44.
21. Ghaedi M, Shokrollahi A, Niknam K, Niknama E, Najibi A, Soylak M. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples. J Hazard Mater 2009;168:1022-7.
22. Li Z, Chen J, Liu M, Yang Y. Ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of lead and cadmium in water samples. Anal Methods 2014;6:3241-6.
23. Gouda AA. A new coprecipitation method without carrier element for separation and preconcentration of some metal ions at trace levels in water and food samples. Talanta 2016;146:435-41.
24. Hu X. Rapid coprecipitation-separation and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium in water with cobalt (II) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Int J Environ Anal Chem 2011;91:263-71.
25. Oymak T, Tokalioglu S, Yilmaz V, Yilmaz D. Determination of lead and cadmium in food samples by the coprecipitation method. Food Chem 2009;113:1314-7.
26. Soylak M, Erdogan ND. Copper(II)-rubeanic acid coprecipitation system for separation-preconcentration of trace metal ions in environmental samples for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. J Hazard Mater 2006;137:1035-41.
27. Soylaka M, Kars A, Narin I. Coprecipitation of Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) for preconcentration in environmental samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. J Hazard Mater 2008;159:435-9.
28. Soylak M, Divrikli U, Saracoglu S, Elci L. Membrane filtration-atomic absorption spectrometry combination for copper, cobalt, cadmium, lead and chromium in environmental samples. Environ Monit Assess 2007;127:169-76.
29. Ghaedi M, Tavallali H, Shokrollahi A, Zahedi M, Montazerozohori M, Soylak M. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid-phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates. J Hazard Mater 2009;166:1441-8.
30. Shokrollahi A, Ghaedi M, Hossaini O, Khanjari N, Soylak M. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry combination for copper(II) ion in environmental and biological samples. J Hazard Mater 2008;160:435-40.
31. Shah F, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Soylak M. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-dispersive liquid phase microextraction for determination of trace lead level in blood samples prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization. Microchem J 2012;101:5-10.
32. Khan S, Kazi TG, Soylak M. A green and efficient in-syringe ionic liquid-based single step microextraction procedure for preconcentration and determination of cadmium in water samples. J Ind Eng Chem 2015;27:149-52.
33. Massadeh A, El-Khateeb M, Ibrahim S. Evaluation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in selected cosmetic products from Jordanian, Sudanese, and Syrian markets. Public Health 2017;149:130-7.
34. Srijaranai S, Autsawaputtanakul W, Santaladchaiyakit Y, Khameng T, Siriraks A, Deming RL. Use of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as the post-column reagent for ion-exchange chromatography of heavy metals in environmental samples. Microchem J 2011;99:152-8.
35. Britton HTS. “Hydrogen ions” 4th Ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1952. p. 1168.
36. ICH: Proceedings of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirement of Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guidelines). Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology, Q2B, Geneva, Switzerland; 1996.
37. Gouda AA, Amin AH, Ali IS, Al Malah Z. Green dispersive micro solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes for preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in food, water, and tobacco samples. Curr Anal Chem 2018;14:1-16.
Statistics
95 Views | 60 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
EL-SHEIKH, R., HASSAN, W. S., IBRAHIM, S. H., YOUSSEF, A. M., & GOUDA, A. A. (2020). GREEN VORTEX-ASSISTED IONIC LIQUID-BASED DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION FOR ENRICHMENT AND DETERMINATION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD IN WATER, VEGETABLES AND TOBACCO SAMPLES. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(5), 103-110. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020v12i5.38176
Section
Original Article(s)