• DHARMENDER PALLERLA Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009 Telangana, India
  • SUMAN BANOTH Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009 Telangana, India
  • SUNKARI JYOTHI Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009 Telangana, India




Sodium alginate, Badam Gum, Kaolin, Curcumin, Microebads, Drug Delivery


Objective: The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the Curcumin (CUR) encapsulated sodium alginate (SA)/badam gum (BG)/kaolin (KA) microbeads for controlled drug release studies.

Methods: The fabricated microbeads were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dynamic swelling studies and in vitro release kinetics were performed in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) and simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) at 37 °C.

Results: FTIR confirms the formation of microbeads. DSC studies confirm the polymorphism of CUR in drug loaded microbeads which indicate the molecular level dispersion of the drug in the microbeads. SEM studies confirmed the microbeads are spherical in shape with wrinkled and rough surfaces. XRD studies reveal the molecular dispersion of CUR and the presence of KA in the developed microbeads. In vitro release studies and swelling studies depend on the pH of test media, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. The % of drug release values fit into the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and n values are obtained in the range of 0.577-0.664, which indicates that the developed microbeads follow the non-Fickian diffusion drug release mechanism.

Conclusion: The results concluded that the CUR encapsulated microbeads are potentially good carriers for controlled drug release studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Jain KK. Drug delivery systems-an overview. In: Drug delivery systems. Jain KK (Ed) Humana Press: Totowa, NJ; 2008. p. 1-50.

Jones DS, Bruschi ML, de Freitas O, Gremião MPD, Lara EHG, Andrews GP. Rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of thermoresponsive, bioadhesive binary mixtures composed of poloxamer 407 and carbopol 974p designed as platforms for implantable drug delivery systems for use in the oral cavity. Int J Pharm 2009;372:49-58.

Bruschi ML. 3-classification of therapeutic systems for drug delivery. In: Strategies to modify the drug release from pharmaceutical systems. Bruschi ML (Ed) Woodhead Publishing; 2015. p. 29-36.

Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Fabrication of gelatin/karaya gum blend microspheres for the controlled release of distigmine bromide. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:1-11.

Ganguly S, Maity PP, Mondal S, Das P, Bhawal P, Dhara S, et al. Polysaccharide and poly(methacrylic acid) based biodegradable elastomeric biocompatible semi-ipn hydrogel for controlled drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng C 2018;92:34-51.

Sreekanth Reddy O, Subha MCS, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Chowdoji Rao K. Curcumin encapsulated dual cross linked sodium alginate/montmorillonite polymeric composite beads for controlled drug delivery. J Pharma Anal 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.07.002

Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC, Mallikarjuna B. Sodium alginate/gelatin microbeads-intercalated with kaolin nanoclay for emerging drug delivery in wilson’s disease. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:71-80.

Ngetich WK, Mwangi EM, Kiptoo J, Digo CA, Ombito JO. In vitro determination of sun protection factor on clays used for cosmetic purposes in kenya. Chem Mater Res 2014;6:25-30.

Aguzzi C, Cerezo P, Viseras C, Caramella C. Use of clays as drug delivery systems: possibilities and limitations. Appl Clay Sci 2007;36:22-36.

Viseras C, Cerezo P, Sanchez R, Salcedo I, Aguzzi C. Current challenges in clay minerals for drug delivery. Appl Clay Sci 2010;48:291-5.

Rebelo M, Viseras C, Lopez Galindo A, Rocha F, da Silva EF. Rheological and thermal characterization of peloids made of selected portuguese geological materials. Appl Clay Sci 2011;52:219-27.

Silva HD, Pessoa-de-Souza MA, Fongaro G, Anunciação CE, Silveira Lacerda EdP, Barardi CRM, et al. Behaviour and recovery of human adenovirus from tropical sediment under simulated conditions. Sci Total Environ 2015;530:314-22.

Vergaro V, Lvov YM, Leporatti S. Halloysite clay nanotubes for resveratrol delivery to cancer cells. Macromol Biosci 2012;12:1265-71.

Williams LB: Geomimicry. Harnessing the antibacterial action of clays. Clay Miner 2017;52:1-24.

Otto C, Haydel S. Microbicidal clays. Composition, activity, mechanism of action, and therapeutic applications. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them. Sci Technol Education 2013;2:1169-80.

Misyak S, Burlaka A, Golotiuk V, Lukin S, Kornienko P. Antiradical, antimetastatic and antitumor activity of kaolin preparation “kremnevit”. Galician Med J 2016;23:44-7.

Pandey SP, Shukla T, Dhote VK, Mishra DK, Maheshwari R, Tekade RK. Use of polymers in controlled release of active agents. In: Basic fundamentals of drug delivery. Elsevier; 2019. p. 113-72.

Obireddy SR, Chintha M, Kashayi CR, Venkata KRKS, Subbarao SMC. Gelatin-coated dual cross-linked sodium alginate/ magnetite nanoparticle microbeads for controlled release of doxorubicin. Chemistry Select 2020;5:10276-84.

Calafiore R, Basta GPP, Montanucci P. Clinical grade sodium alginate for microencapsulation of myofibroblasts isolated from wharton jelly for prevention and treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. US Patent US20150290141A1; 2015.

Mylangam CK, Beeravelli S, Medikonda J, Pidaparthi JS, Kolapalli VRM. Badam gum: a natural polymer in mucoadhesive drug delivery. Design, optimization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of badam gum-based metoprolol succinate buccoadhesive tablets. Drug Delivery 2016;23:195-206.

Meka VS, Nali SR, Songa AS, Kolapalli VRM. Characterization and in vitro drug release studies of a natural polysaccharide terminalia catappa gum (badam gum). AAPS PharmSciTech 2012;13:1451-64.

Sadati Behbahani E, Ghaedi M, Abbaspour M, Rostamizadeh K, Dashtian K. Curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: in vitro digestion and release studies. Polyhedron 2019;164:113-22.

Sun J, Bi C, Chan HM, Sun S, Zhang Q, Zheng Y. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have prolonged in vitro antitumour activity, cellular uptake and improved in vivo bioavailability. Colloids Surf B 2013;111:367-75.

Chen HW, Huang HC. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 1998;124:1029-40.

Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Emerging novel drug delivery system for control release of curcumin through sodium alginate/poly (ethylene glycol) semi ipn microbeads-intercalated with kaolin nanoclay. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:324-33.

Kar S, Kundu B, Reis RL, Sarkar R, Nandy P, Basu R, et al. Curcumin ameliorates the targeted delivery of methotrexate intercalated montmorillonite clay to cancer cells. Eur J Pharm Sci 2019;135:91-102.

Costa P, Lobo JMS. Modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001;13:123-33.

Dash S, Murthy PN, Nath L, Chowdhury P. Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems. Acta Pol Pharm 2010;67:217-23.

Gouda R, Baishya H, Qing Z. Application of mathematical models in drug release kinetics of carbidopa and levodopa er tablets. J Dev Drugs 2017;6:1-8.

Dozie Nwachukwu SO, Danyuo Y, Obayemi JD, Odusanya OS, Malatesta K, Soboyejo WO. Extraction and encapsulation of prodigiosin in chitosan microspheres for targeted drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng C 2017;71:268-78.

Arhewoh IM, Okhamafe AO. An overview of site-specific delivery of orally administered proteins/peptides and modelling considerations. J Med Biomed Res 2004;3:7-20.

Rekik SB, Gassara S, Bouaziz J, Deratani A, Baklouti S. Development and characterization of porous membranes based on kaolin/chitosan composite. Appl Clay Sci 2017;143:1-9.

Zhang Y, Long M, Huang P, Yang H, Chang S, Hu Y, et al. Intercalated 2d nanoclay for emerging drug delivery in cancer therapy. Nano Res 2017;10:2633-43.

Jain S, Datta M. Montmorillonite-alginate microspheres as a delivery vehicle for oral extended release of venlafaxine hydrochloride. J Drug Delivery Sci Technol 2016;33:149-56.

Jithendra T, Reddy OS, Subha MCS, Rao KC. Fabrication of drug delivery system for control release of curcumin, intercalated with magnetite nano particles through sodium alginate/polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate semi ipn microbeads. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:249-57.

Irfan Khan M, Khan HU, Azizli K, Sufian S, Man Z, Siyal AA, et al. The pyrolysis kinetics of the conversion of malaysian kaolin to metakaolin. Appl Clay Sci 2017;146:152-61.

Reddy OS, Subha MCS, Mallikarjuna B, Madhavi C, Chowdoji Rao K. Fabrication of montmorillonite intercalated sodium alginate/poly (vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) beads for extended release of glycopyrrolate. Ind J Adv Chem Sci 2020;8:4-13.

Govindaraju R, Karki R, Chandrashekarappa J, Santhanam M, Shankar AKK, Joshi HK, et al. Enhanced water dispersibility of curcumin encapsulated in alginate-polysorbate 80 nano particles and bioavailability in healthy human volunteers. Pharm Nanotechnol 2019;7:39-56.

Madhavi C, Babu PK, Maruthi Y, Parandhama A, Reddy OS, Rao KC, et al. Sodium alginate–locust bean gum IPN hydrogel beads for the controlled delivery of nimesulide-anti-inflammatory drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:245-52.

Chintha M, Obireddy SR, Areti P, Marata CSS, Kashayi CR, Rapoli JK. Sodium alginate/locust bean gum-g-methacrylic acid ipn hydrogels for “simvastatin” drug delivery. J Dispersion Sci Technol 2019;41:2192-202.



How to Cite

PALLERLA, D., BANOTH, S., & JYOTHI, S. (2021). FABRICATION OF NANO CLAY INTERCALATED POLYMERIC MICROBEADS FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF CURCUMIN. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(1), 206–215. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021v13i1.39965



Original Article(s)