• YOHANES DWIATMAKA Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6721-6672
  • NUNUNG YUNIARTI Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • ENDANG LUKITANINGSIH Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • SUBAGUS WAHYUONO Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia




Tempeh, Soybean, Fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus, Isoflavones


Objective: To determine the best temperature and time of fermentation for making soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) tempeh seeds with high content of isoflavones.

Methods: Five varieties of soybean seeds, Devon-1, Dena-1, Dega-1, Anjasmoro, and Argomulyo were determined for their isoflavones content using an Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. A variety containing the highest isoflavones was washed, boiled, peeled, then mixed with tempeh starter (Rhizopus oligosporus culture) at 1 g/kg. The mixture was then poured into plastic bags and flattened with two centimeters of thickness. Fermentation in three conditions: (a) ambient temperature (27-32 oC) without air circulation, (b) 27±0.5 oC, and (c) 30±0.5 oC both with air circulation. The inner temperature, ripening time, and rotting time was recorded. The total isoflavones content was measured every 6 hours.

Results: The variety of Devon-1 has the highest content of isoflavones (0.112% w/w). Fermentation in condition (a) caused the tempeh too hot (42 oC) and rotted at the 42nd hour. Condition (b) produced the best tempeh, ripening at the inner peak temperature (32.5 oC) at the 32nd hour; and rotted after the 100th hour. Condition (c) produced good tempeh, the ripening occurred at the 31st hour at 33 oC and rotted after the 113th hour. Tempeh that was produced with condition (b) at the 72nd hour has the highest content of isoflavones (0.089% w/w).

Conclusion: Fermentation at 27±0.5 oC with air circulation for 72 hours produced tempeh with the highest isoflavones content (0.089% w/w), but decrease about 20% compared to its content in seeds (0.112% w/w).


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Author Biographies

NUNUNG YUNIARTI, Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


ENDANG LUKITANINGSIH, Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


SUBAGUS WAHYUONO, Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



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