• SHWETA VIBHUTE Department of Pharmaceutics, SCES’s Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, 411033, Maharashtra, India
  • ADITI KASAR Department of Pharmaceutics, SCES’s Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, 411033, Maharashtra, India
  • HRISHIKESH MAHALE Department of Pharmaceutics, SCES’s Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, 411033, Maharashtra, India
  • MAHESH GAIKWAD Department of Pharmaceutics, SCES’s Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, 411033, Maharashtra, India
  • MADHUR KULKARNI Department of Pharmaceutics, SCES’s Indira College of Pharmacy, Tathwade, Pune, 411033, Maharashtra, India



SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Niclosamide, Oral formulation, repurposed drug, Oral bioavailability, Clinical trial


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global health hazard due to its rapid dissemination and limited treatment options. Identification of possible treatments that may kill the virus, speed up the recovery, or reduce the case fatality rate is a need of hour. However, developing and producing particular COVID-19 medicines and vaccines is a time-consuming process with possibilities of clinical failures due to safety or efficacy issue. Medication repositioning is a safer and quicker approach for dealing with the COVID-19 worldwide threat right now. Out of 48 FDA-approved medicines tested against the SARS-CoV-2, niclosamide is one amongst few that has shown potential in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. However, the currently available oral conventional formulation of niclosamide results in systemic medication levels those are unsatisfactory to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Hence, various formulation strategies have been adapted in order to achieve optimum therapeutic outcome of niclosamide when delivered via oral, inhalation, and intranasal routes. Some of these formulations are presently undergoing clinical trials. The current review focuses on mechanisms of action of niclosamide and its repurposing effectiveness against COVID-19. The delivery strategies to improve its bioavailability have been overviewed. The recently completed and on-going clinical trials have also been summarized


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How to Cite

VIBHUTE, S., KASAR, A., MAHALE, H., GAIKWAD, M., & KULKARNI, M. (2022). NICLOSAMIDE: A POTENTIAL TREATMENT OPTION FOR COVID-19. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 15(1).



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