EVALUATION OFPIGMENTS AS ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS FROM BETA VULGARIS LINN
Objective: The work is aimed to evaluate the health beneficial properties of (Beta vulgaris) Beet root. Beet root ranks among the 10 most powerful vegetable as a natural antioxidant and has a potential source of natural food colorant. The present work is therefore organized to evaluate the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Antioxidant activity and Antibacterial activity of the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root.
Methods: In the present work the Total Phenolic Content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methodof the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root (Beta vulgaris). The antioxidant scavenging activity of these extracts were determined by applying three different assay methods: (1) (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) DPPH method, (2) Ferric thio-cyanate (FTC) method and (3) Thio-barbituric acid (TBA). Antibacterial test was examined against gram positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli, S. dysenteriae) bacterial strains.
Results: In the present workthe Methanolic extract showed greater TPC value 394.8 mg/g GAE than the Ethanolic extract 316.8 mg/g GAE. A correlation between antiradical capacities of the extracts with TPC value was clearly observed. The Methanolic extract was found to be most effective in all the methods. 50% scavenging power of the Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts were (0.129 mg/ml and 0.254 mg/ml) in DPPH method respectively. Moreover, in TBA and FTC method, both the extracts of Beet root exhibited strong percentage inhibition ranging from 49%-62%. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root are significantly effective, both in Gram negative (E. coli, S. dysenteriae) and in Gram positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) bacterium.
Conclusion: Thus, from the above experimental observations, it can be clearly stated that the Beet root is a promising source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agent and definitely provides an alternative towards synthetic antioxidant because of its beneficial properties.
2. Aqil F, Ahmad I, Mehmood Z. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Turkish J Biol 2006;30:177-83.
3. Karou D, Dicko MH, Simpore J, Traore AS. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4:823-8.
4. Yadav N, Vasudeva N, Singh S, Sharma SK. Medicinal properties of genus Chenopodium Linn. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2007;6:131-4.
5. Huda-Faujan N, Noriham A, Norrakish AS, Babji AS. Antioxidative activity of water extract of some Malaysian herbs. Asian Food J 2007;14:61-8.
6. Jamaludin M, Chou TY, Azrina ZA. Total phenolic content of selected fruits and vegetables commonly found locally in Malaysia. Rev Global Med Healthcare Res 2010;1:81-8.
7. Jocob SJP, Shenbagaraman S. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the selected leafy vegetables. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3:148-52.
8. Dianzami MU. The role of free radical in liver damage. Proc Nutr Soc 1987;46:43-52.
9. Koppenol WH. Free radical damage and its control. Elsevier Science Publication company, Inc. New York; 1994. p. 3-24.
10. Dlim MM, Alsabri SG, Mohamad SS, Zetrini AE, Salem AAH, Auzi AA. Use of Beta vulgaris as natural colouring agent for food and cosmetics in Libya. J Chem Pharm Res 1994;5:340-5.
11. Canadanovic-Brunet JM, Savatovic SS, Cetkovic GS, Vulic JJ, Dililas SM, Markov SL, et al. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Beet root Pomace extract. Czech J Food Sci 2011;29:575-85.
12. Gliszezynska-swigo A, Szymusiak H, Malinowska P. Betalain, The main pigment of red beet-molecular origin of its exceptionally high free radical scavenging activity. Food Addit Contam 2006;23:1079-87.
13. Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Characterisation and application of Betalain pigment from plant of Amaranthaceae. Trends Food Sci Technol 2005;16:370-6.
14. Woo KK, Fanny-Wong FN, Catherine Chua HS, Tang PY. Stability of spray dried pigment of red dragon fruit [Hylocereus polyrhizus weber britton and rose] as a function of organic acid additives and storage condition. Philippine Agric Sci 2011;99:264-9.
15. Zou D, Brewer M, Gracia F, Feugang JM, Wang J, Zang R. Cactus pear; a natural product in cancer chemoprevention. Nutr J 2005;4:25-36.
16. Azeredo HM. Betalain: properties, sources,applications and stability-a review. Int J Food Sci Technol 2009;44:2365-76.
17. Slavov A, Karagyozov V, Denev P, Kratechanova M, Kratechanov C. Antioxidant activity of red beet juice obtained after microwave and thermal pretreatments. Czech J Food Sci 2013;31:139-47.
18. Tanaka Y, Sasaki N, Ohmiya A. Biosynthesis of plant pigment: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. Plant J 2008;54:733-49.
19. Sakac MB, Pericin DM, Mandic AI, Kormanjos SM. Antioxidant properties of Ethanolic extract of sugar Beet rootpulp. Original Sci Paper 2004;35:355-264.
20. Git MI, Ferreres F, Tomas-Barberan FA. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the flavonoids and vitamin C content of minimally processed Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris sub species cycla.). J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:2007-12.
21. Nemzer B, Pietrzkowski Z, Sporna A, Stalica P, Thresher W, Michalowski T, Wybraniec S. Betalain and nutritional profiles of pigment enriched red Beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) dried extracts. Food Chem 2011;127:42-53.
22. Ogan A, Korsilayan-Kuzu H, Demir S, Gencer odner BO, Gunel A, Enginum M. Investigation of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Juice proteins for vitamin B12 binding. J Fac Pharm Istanbul Univ 2004;37:13-21.
23. Chakole R, Zade S, Charde M. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Beta vulgarislinn root. Int J Biomed Adv Res 2011;2:124-30.
24. Kapur A, Sati S, Ranjan A, Gupta P. Screening methanolic extract of Beta vulgaris roots for photoprotective activity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:124-7.
25. Kim I, Chrin YW, Lim SW, Kim YC, Kim J. Norisoprenoids and Hepatoprotective Flavone glycosides from the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris. Arch Pharmacal Res 2004;27:600-3.
26. Koubaier HBH, Essaidi I, Snoussi A, Zyoulli S, Chaabouni MM, Thonart P, et al. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation the colorant of heated red beet root extracts. Afr J Biotechnol 2013;12:728-34.
27. Shyamala BN, Jamuna P. Nutritional content and antioxidant properties of pulp waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris. Malaysian J Nutr 2010;16:114-21.
28. Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Selected Fruits, Vegetables, and Grain Products. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:4113-7.
29. Khalaf NA, Shakya A, Al-olhman A, El-Agbar Z, Farah H. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ethanolic extract of Betaâ€“vulgaris linn roots. Turkish J Biol 2008;32:51-5.
30. Huda-Faujan N, Noriham A, Norrakish AS, Babji AS. Antioxidant activity of plant methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:484-9.
31. Perez C, Pauli M, Bazevque P. An antibiotic assay by the agar well diffusion method. Acta Biol Med Exp 1990;15:113-5.
32. Junior A, Zanil C. Biological screening of Brazalian medicinal plants. J Braz Sci 2000;95:367-73.
33. Aris SRS, Mustafa S, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Ahmad R. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruits of Ficus DeltoideaVarangustifoliaspe. Malaysian J Agric Sci 2009;13:146-50.
34. Sidduraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origin of drumstick tree. (Moringa oleifera lam) leaves. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2144-55.
35. Chang LW, Yen WJ, Huang SC, Duh PD. Antioxidant activity of sesame coat. Food Chem 2002;78:347-54.
36. Duh PD, Tu YY, Yen GC. Antioxidant activity of water extract of Harny Jyur (Chrysanthenum morifolium ramat). Food Sci Technol 1999;32:269-77.
37. Rahman MM, Fazlic V, Saad NW. Antioxidant properties of raw Garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Int Food Res J 2012;19:589-91.
38. Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C. Comparison of the antioxidant activity of some acid phenol: structures activity relationships. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1992;56:324-5.
39. Naphade SS, Khadabadi SS, Derore SL, Jagtap NS, Hadke SP. Antioxidant activity of different extracts of plant Tricholepis Glaberrima D. C. (Asteraceae). Int J PharmTech Res 2009;1:502-5.
40. Tariq AL, Riyaz AL. Antioxidant activity of Camellia sinensis leaves. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2013;2:40-6.
41. Bajpai M, Panday A, Tiwari SK, Prakash D. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plant. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:284-91.