FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OFPOLYHERBAL TOOTHPASTE
Objective: The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate polyherbal toothpaste using commonly available medicinal plants in Malaysia in order to treat oral problems.
Methods: Polyherbal toothpaste containing methanolic extract of pomegranate, lemon and mango peels was formulated and tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with different concentrations of toothpaste were used (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml).
Results: Among all the tested bacteria used Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most sensitive to the formulated toothpaste as seen by zone of inhibition (10-15 mm) followed by Escherichia coli (9-12 mm), Bacillus cereus (7-12 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9-11). The formulated polyherbal toothpaste was successfully evaluated using different standard parameters to ensure its quality and physiochemical properties.
Conclusion: The results showed that the formulated polyherbal toothpaste is promising antimicrobial effects against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. It may be safer compared to fully synthetic toothpaste. Further studies are warranted to prove safety and efficacy of the formulated polyherbal toothpaste.Keywords: Herbal toothpaste, Punica granatum, Citrus limon, Mangifera indica, Antibacterial activity
2. Lewington A. Medicinal plants and plant extracts: a review of their importation into Europe. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 1993.
3. WHO "Health topics: Oral health"Geneva, Switzerland; 2015.
4. Van Oosten MA, Mikx FH, Rengi HH. Microbial and clinical measurement of periodontal pockets during sequential periods of non-treatment, mechanical debridement and metronidazole therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:197â€“204.
5. Elahe VD, Zahra A, Marzieh G, Parisa A, Mohammad K, Arash M. Effect of Punica granatum L. flower water extract on five common oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on the orthodontic wire. Iran J Public Health 2014;43:1688-94.
6. Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2006;6:39-46.
7. Nikhal S, Mahajan SD. Evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica (leaves). J Pharm Sci Res 2010;2:45-7.
8. Kamarezi TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H. Antimicrobial activity and essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma manga and Zingiber cassumunar from Malaysia. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 2012;5:202-9.