ISOLATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROTEIN/PEPTIDE FROM FICUS GLOMERATA LEAF
Objective: To isolate the antibacterial proteins/peptides from Ficus glomerata leaf.
Methods: Present study was designed to investigate antibacterial activity of proteins/peptides isolated from Ficus glomerata leaf. The isolated proteins/peptides were further checked for antibacterial activity against, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella entrica bacterial pathogens.
Results: The results indicates that a 35kDa of protein were identified and exhibit good antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogen among all strains, Salmonella entrica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit good results with a clear zone of inhibition.Conclusion: Ficus glomerata is popular for its medicinal properties against therapeutic potential. In the present study a novel protein with broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Microbes cause severe damage to plants which results in a large economic loss so; this protein can be use as an active agent in agriculture for plant protection and also in the development of novel therapeutic agents.
2. Sudhakar A. Phytochemical screening of Ficus glomerata. Roxb. Galled leaves. Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2012;3:105-7.
3. Kamala G, Vutukuru SS, Rani JU, Meghanath P, Pasha C. Screening of small peptides from various germinating seeds having antimicrobial activity. J Pharm Bioanal Sci 2016;11:2278-3008.
4. Keservani RK, Sharma AK, Jarouliya U. Protein and peptide in drug targeting and its therapeutic approach. Ars Pharm 2015;56:165-77.
5. Goyal RK, Mattoo AK. Plant antimicrobial peptides. In: Richard M Epand. editors. Host Defense Peptides and Their Potential as Therapeutic Agents. 1st ed. America: Springer International Publishing; 2011. p. 111-36.
6. Epand RM, Vogel HJ. The diversity of antimicrobial peptides and their mechanisms of action. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999;1462:11-28.
7. Roberts WK, Selitrennikoff CP. Isolation and partial characterization of two antifungal proteins from barley. Biochim Biophys Acta 1986;880:161-70.
8. Huynh QK, Hironaka CM, Levine EB, Smith CE, Borgmeyer JR, Shah DM. Antifungal proteins from plants. Purification, molecular cloning, and antifungal properties of chitinases from maize seeds. Am J Biochem 1992;267:6635-40.
9. Leah R, Tommerup H, Svendsen IB, Mundy J. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three barley seed proteins with antifungal properties. Am J Biochem 1991;266:1564-73.
10. Terras FR, Goderis IJ, Leuven FV, Vanderleyden J, Cammue BP, Broekaert WF. In vitro antifungal activity of a radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed protein homologous to nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. Plant Physiol 1992a;100:1055-8.
11. Terras FRG, Schoofs HME, De Bolle MFG, Van-FL, Rees SB, Vanderleyden J, et al. Analysis of two novel classes of plant antifungal proteins from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. J Biol Chem 1992b;267:15301-9.
12. Terras FR, Torrekens S, Leuven FV, Osborn RW, Vanderleyden J, Cammue B, et al. A new family of basic cysteineâ€rich plant antifungal proteins from Brassicaceae species. FEBS Lett 1993;316:233-40.
13. Terras FR, Eggermont K, Kovaleva V, Raikhel NV, Osborn RW, Kester A, et al. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from radish: their role in host defense. Plant Cell 1995;7:573-88.
14. Wang SY, Wu JH, Ng TB, Ye XY, Rao PF. A non-specific lipid transfer protein with antifungal and antibacterial activities from the mung bean. Peptides 2004;25:1235-42.
15. Wong JH, Ng TB. Sesquin, a potent defensin-like antimicrobial peptide from ground beans with inhibitory activities toward tumor cells and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Peptides 2005;26:1120-6.
16. Ferreira RB, Monteiro SARA, Freitas R, Santos CN, Chen Z, Batista LM, et al. The role of plant defense proteins in fungal pathogenesis. Mol Plant Pathol 2007;8:677-700.
17. De Caleya RF, Gonzalez-Pascual B, GarcÃa-Olmedo F, Carbonero P. Susceptibility of phytopathogenic bacteria to wheat puro thionins in vitro. Appl Microbiol 1972;23:998-1000.
18. Yount NY, Yeaman MR. Peptide antimicrobials: cell wall as a bacterial target. Annal New York Acad Sci 2013;1277:127-38.
19. Tavormina P, Coninck BD, Nikonorova N, Smet DI, Cammue BP. The plant peptidome: an expanding repertoire of structural features and biological functions. Plant Cell 2015;27:2095-118.
20. Ranjan S, Matcha R, Madhuri B, Narendra Babu PVR. Comparative evaluation of protein extraction methods from few leguminous seeds. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 2012;3:558-63.
21. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.
22. Ramadan ES. Synthesis, spectral characterization and antimicrobial activity of novel 2-hydrazono-2(3H)-thiazole derivatives derived from 4-(3-Chlorophenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:176-82.
23. Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970;227:680-5.
24. Reddy KVR, Yedery RD, Aranha C. Antimicrobial peptides: premises and promises. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2004;24:536â€“47.
25. Boonnak N, Karalai C, Chantrapromma S, Ponglimanont C, Fun HK, Kanjana-Opas A, et al. Anti-Pseudomonaaeruginosa xanthones from the resin and green fruits of Cratoxylum cochinchinense. Tetrahedron 2009;65:3003â€“13.
26. Mahabusarakam W, Rattanaburi S, Phongpaichit S, Kanjana-Opas A. antibacterial and cytotoxic xanthones from Cratoxylum cochinchinense. Phytochem Lett 2008;1:211â€“4.
27. Mothana RAA, Gruenert R, Bernarski PJ, Lindequist U. Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine. Pharmazie 2009;64:260â€“8.
28. Yang X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Pei Y. Expression of a novel small antimicrobial protein from the seeds of motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) confers disease resistance in tobacco. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73.3:939-46.
29. Ningappa MB, Dhananjaya BL, Dinesha R, Harsha R, Srinivas L. Potent antibacterial property of APC protein from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L.). Food Chem 2010;118:747-50.
30. Dahot MU. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of small protein of Indigofera oblongifolia leave. J Ethnopharma 1999; 64:277-82.
31. Mateen A, Tanveer Z, Janardhan K, Gupta VC. Screening and purification of antimicrobial proteins/peptides from some of the medicinal plant's seeds. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2015;6:774â€“8.