PROPERTIES, PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION AND VARIOUS TECHNIQUE OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION IN NATIVE STARCH: A DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW
Keywords:Starch, Chemical modification, Physiochemical properties, Cross-linking
Starch is one important natural polymer that finds application in the formulation of dosage forms as the binder, disintegrates, diluents, gelling agent etc. Starch is drawing the attention in drug delivery as it is cheap, non-toxic, renewable, biodegradable and compatible with many other materials for industrial application. Starch has vital intrinsic properties that have made its pharmaceutical applications possible. It has also been used for a wide range of particular drug delivery applications, such as the delivery of challenging molecules and targeting to specific sites in the body. Starches are integrally unsuitable for most applications such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, retrogradation characteristics and absence of certain groups responsible for a particular function etc. So, in order to reduce its limitations and improve its applications, modification of starch is necessary. It can be modified by several ways like chemical modification, physical modification and genetic modification but the most important one is the chemical modification. This review summarizes the properties and application of native starchin conventional drug delivery systems within a world of dynamic drug production technology. It also describes the chemical modification like cross-linking, esterification, etherification and dual modification of starch.
2. BeMiller JN. Starch modification: challenges and prospects. Starch/Starke, 1997;49:127-31.
3. Jobling S. Improving starch for food and industrial applications. Curr Opinion Plant Biol 2004;7:210-8.
4. Tharanathan RN. Starch-value addition by modification. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2005;45:371-84.
5. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhle SB. A textbook of pharmacognosy. 48th edition. Nirali Prakashan; 2011. p. 8.30-8.34.
6. Adeleke OA. Comparative characterization of the physicochemical properties of some starch blends-Bombarra ground nuts and cassava starch versus cocoyam and wheat starches. Int J Curr Res Acad Rev 2014;2:317-29.
7. Manek RV, Kunle OO, Emeje MO, Builders PF. Physical, thermal and sorption profile of starch obtained from tacca leontopetaloides. Starch/Starke 2005;57:55–61.
8. Knutson CA. Evaluation of variationsinamylose-iodineabsorbance spectra. Carbohydrate Polymer 1999;42:65–72.
9. Oates CG. Towards an understanding of starch granulestructure and hydrolysis. Trends Food Sci Technol 1997;8:375–82.
10. Stasiak K, Molenda M, Opalinski I, B?aszczak W. Mechanical properties of native maize, wheat, and potatostarches. Czech J Food Sci 2013;31:347–54.
11. Shimelis E, Meaza M, Rakshit S. Physico-cemicalproperties, pasting behavior and functional characteristics offlours and starches from improved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in East Africa. Agric Eng Int 2006;VIII:1-19.
12. Rindlav Westling A, Stading M, Hermansson A, Gatenholm P. Structure, mechanical and barrier properties ofamylose and amylopectin films. Carbohydrate Polymer 1998;36:217–24.
13. Sasaki T, Yasui T, Matsuki J. Effect of amylose content on gelatinization, retrogradation, and pasting properties of starches from waxy and non-waxy wheat and their seeds. Cereal Chem 2000;77:58–63.
14. Pilpel N, Otuyemi SO, Kurup TRR. Factors affecting the disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine phosphate/starch tablets. J Pharm Pharmacol 1978;30:214-9.
15. Akin-Ajani OD, Itiola OA, Odeku OA. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets. AAPS PharmSciTech 2005;6:E458–E463.
16. Adebayo AS, Itiola OA. Evaluation of breadfruit and cocoyam starches as exo-disintegrantsina paracetamol tablet formulation. Pharm Pharmacol Commun 1998;4:385–9.
17. Nattapulwat N, Purkkao N, Suwithayapanth O. Evaluation of native andcarboxymethyl yam (Dioscorea esculenta) starches as tablet disintegrants. Silpakorn Univercity Sci Technol J 2008;2:18–25.
18. Lowenthal W. Mechanism of action of tablet disintegrants. Pharm Acta Helv 1973;48:589–609.
19. Myllarinen P, Buleon A, Lahtinen R, Forssell P. The crystallinity of amylose and amylopectin films. Carbohydrate Polymers 2002;48:41–8.
20. Atypi F, Manoochehri S, Moghadam SH, Dinarvanl R. Cross-linked starch microsphere effect of cross linking condition on the microsphere characterstic. Arch Pharm Res 2006;29:1179-86.
21. Chen L, Li X, Pang Y, Li L, Zhang X, Yu L. Resistant starch as a carrier for oral colon–targeting drug matrix system. J Materials Sci 2007;18:2199-203.
22. Santander Ortega MJ, Stauner T, Loretz B, Ortega Vinuesa JL. Nanoparticles made from novel starch derivatives for transdermal drug delivery. J Controlled Release 2010;141:85–92.
23. Hirsch JB, Kokini JL. Understanding the mechanism of crosslinking agents (POCl3, STMP, and EPI) through swelling behavior and pasting properties of cross-linked waxy maize starches. Cereal Chem 2002;79:102–7.
24. Wang YJ, Wang L. Characterization of acetylated waxy maize starches prepared under catalysis by different alkali and alkaline-earth hydroxides. Starch/Starke 2002;54:25–30.
25. Bentacur AD, Chel GL, Canizares HE. Acetylation and characterisation of canavalia ensiformis starch. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:378–82.
26. Greenwood CT, Muir DD, Whitcher HW. Hydroxyethyl starch as a cryoprotective agent for human red blood cells. The relation between the molecular properties and the cryoprotective effect. Carbohydrate Polymers 2004;55:23–6.
27. Sitohy MZ, Labib SM, Saadany SS, Ramadan MF. Optimizing the conditions for starch dry phosphorylation with sodium monoand dihydrogen orthophosphate under heat and vacuum. Staerke 2000;52:95–100.
28. Nabeshima EH, Grossmann MVE. Functional properties of pregelatinized and crosslinked cassava starch obtained by extrusion with trimetaphosphate. Carbohydrate Polymers 2001;45:347–53.
29. Bhandari PN, Singhal RS. Preparation of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic succinates using NBS as a catalyst. Carbohydrate Polymers 2002;47:277–83.
30. Chung HJ, Woo KS, Lim ST. Glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of cross linked corn starches. Carbohydrate Polymers 2004;55:9-15.
31. Gui Jie M, Peng W, Xiang Sheng M, Xing Z, Tong Z. Cross linking of corn starch with sodium trimetaphosphate in solid state by microwave irradiation. J Appl Polymer Sci 2006;102:5854-60.
32. Wurzburg OB. Nutritional aspects and safety of modified food starches. Nutr Rev 1986;44:74-9.
33. Rutenberg MW, Solarek D. Starch derivatives: production and uses. Academic Press: London; 1984. p. 312-88.
34. Jane J, Xu A, Radosavljevic M, Seib PA. Location of amylose in normal starch granules. Susceptibility of amylose and amylopectin to cross-linking reagents. Cereal Chem 1992;69:405-9.
35. Seker M, Hanna MA. Sodium hydroxide and trimetaphosphate levels affect properties of starch extrudates. Industrial Crop Products 2006;23:249-55.
36. Singh AV, Nath LK. Synthesis and evaluation of physicochemical properties of cross-linked sago starch. Int J Biol Macromol 2012;50:14-8.
37. Koo SH, Lee KY, Lee HG. Effect of cross linking on physicochemical and physiological properties of corn starch. Food Hydrocolloids 2006;24:619-25.
38. Singh V, Ali SZ. Acid degradation of starch. The effect of acid and starch type. Carbohydrate Polymers 2000;41:191–5.
39. Kuakpetoon D, Wang YJ. Characterisation of different starchesoxidised by hypochlorite. Starch/Starke 2001;53:211–8.
40. Jyothi AN, Rajasekharan KN, Moorthy SN, Sreekumar J. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of succinate derivatives ofcassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch. Starch/Starke 2005;57:556-63.
41. Cizova A, Srokova I, Sasinkova V, Malovikova A, Ebringerova A. Carboxymethyl starch octenylsuccinate: microwave and ultrasoundassistedsynthesis and properties. Starch/Starke 2008;60:389-97.
42. Karim AA, Sufha EH, Zaidul ISM. Dual modification of starch via partial enzymatic hydrolysis in the granular state and subsequenthydroxypropylation. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:10901-10907.
43. Kavlani N, Sharma V, Singh L. Various technique for the modification of starch and the application of its derivatives. Int J Pharm 2012;3:25-31.