TO DESIGN THE TECHNOLOGICAL COMBINATIONS AND FED BATCH APPROACH FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL TO L-TYROSINE WITH RESTING CELLS OF CITROBACTER FREUNDII MTCC 2424
Â Objective: The study was carried out with an objective to design technological combinations and fed batch approach for improved production of therapeutically and industrially important molecule L-tyrosine.
Methods: Technological combinations (23) were designed with optimized chemical parameters for the biotransformation of phenol to L-tyrosine with resting cells of C. freundii MTCC 2424. Eight combinations were obtained by combination of varying three optimized chemical parameters (ammonium chloride, phenol and sodium pyruvate). To observe the effect of phenol on L-tyrosine biosynthesis, two fed batch experiments were designed on the basis of its concentrations. The L-tyrosine formed was detected and quantified by HPLC technique.
Results: Maximum L-tyrosine conversion in technological combinations was observed with lower concentration of phenol than optimized value. In fed batch studies, higher phenol concentration was found to be inhibitory for L-tyrosine synthesis due to phenol inactivation of catalyst.
Conclusion: The present approach is helpful in comparing the fermentation processes and designing of better bioprocesses. Production of L-tyrosine at minimum cost and energy is helpful in meeting the challenging need of various industries.
2. Seetharam G, Saville B. L-DOPA production from tyrosinase immobilized in zeolite. Enz Microb Technol 2002;31:747-753. Bourke SL, Kohn J. Polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine: polycarbonates, polyarilates and copolymers with poly (ethylene glycol). Adv Drug Del Rev 2003;55:447-466.
3. Cabrera-Valladares N, Martinez A, Pinero S, Lagunas-Munoz VH, Tinoco R, De Anda R, Vazquez-Duhatt R, Bolivar F, Gosset G. Expression of the melA gene from Rhizobium etli CFN42 in E. coli and characterization of the encoded tyrosinase. Enz Microbiol Technol 2006;38:772-779.
4. Sariaslani FS. Development of a combined biological and chemical process for production of industrial aromatics from renewable resources. Annu Rev Microbiol 2007;61:51-69.
5. Hao S, Avraham Y, Bonne O, Berry EM. Separation induced body weight loss, impairment in alternation behaviour and automatic tone: effects of tyrosine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2001;68:273-81.
6. Neri DF, Weigmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, Mckay DL. The effect of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Avail Space Environ Med 1995;66:313-319.
7. Neri DF, Weigmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, Mckay DL. The effect of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Avail Space Environ Med 1995;66:313-319.
8. Magill RA, Waters WF, Bray GA, Volaufova J, Smith SR, Lieberman HR, McNevin N, Ryan DH. Effects of tyrosine, phentermine, caffeine D-amphetamine and placebo on cognitive and motor performance deficits during sleep deprivation. Nutr Neurosci 2003;6:237-46.
9. Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull 1994;33:319-23.
10. Deijen JB, Weintjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull 1999;48:203-9.
11. Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, Young A, Lierberman HR. Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure. Physiol Behav 2007;575-582.
12. Suzuki S, Hirahara T, Shim JK, Horiniuchi S, Beppu T. Purification and properties of thermostable Î²-tyrosinase from obligatory symbiotic thermophillic Symbiobacterium thermophillum. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1992;56:84-89.
13. Polak J, Brzeseki H. Isolation of tyrosine phenol lyase from Citrobacter freundii. Biotech Lett 1990;12:805-810.
14. Wang JT, Chang SC, Chen YC, Luh KT. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Citrobacter freundii isolates in two different time periods. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2000;33:258-62.
15. 15. Dougan D, Wade D, Mearrick P. Effects of l-dopa metabolites at a dopamine receptor suggest a basis for â€˜on-offâ€™ effect in Parkinsonâ€™s disease. Nat 1975;254:70-72.
16. Gelenberg AJ, Gibson CJ. Tyrosine for treatment of depression. Nutr Health 1884;3:163-173.
17. Young SN. Behavioral effects of dietary neurotransmitters precursors: Basis and clinical aspects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:313-323.
18. Banderet LE, Lieberman HR. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitters precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull 1989;22:759-762.
19. Hoffman BB, Lefkowitz RJ, Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Ruddon RW, Gilman AD. Catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs, and adrenergic receptor-antagonist. Goodman and Gilmanâ€™s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. McGraw Hill, New York; 1996. p.199-250.
20. Chandel M, Azmi W. Optimization of process parameters for production of tyrosine phenol lyase by Citrobacter freundii MTCC 2424. Bioresour Technol 2009;100:1840-1846.
21. Fawett JK, Scott JE. A rapid method for determination of urea. J Clin Pathol 1960;13:156-159.
22. Kumari V. Biotransformation of phenol to L-tyrosine with resting cells of Citrobacter freundii MTCC 2424. Int J Life Scienti Res 2017;3:1339-1344.
23. Kim DY, Rha E, Choi SL, Song JJ, Hong SP, Sung MH, Lee SG. Development of bioreactor system for L-tyrosine synthesis using thermostable tyrosine phenol lyase. J Microbiol Biotechnol2007;17:116-122.