CETYL ALCOHOL AND OLEIC ACID SOPHOROLIPIDS EXHIBIT ANTICANCER ACTIVITY
Objective: Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipid biosurfactants that have been shown to have anticancer activity. We investigated the anti-cancer activity of cetyl alcohol sophorolipids (CAS) and oleic acid sophorolipids (OAS) in breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer (SiHa, HeLa) and non-cancerous (HaCaT and RAW264.7) cell lines.
Methods: For cell viability assay, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SiHa, HeLa, HaCaT and RAW264.7 cell lines were treated with different concentrations (0-160 Âµg/ml) of OAS and CAS for 24h. The cell viability was determined by MTT dye uptake method. Cell proliferation assay was determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion method.
Results: Our preliminary data shows that compared to OAS, CAS exhibited more significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SiHa. However, compared to CAS, OAS induced more decrease in viability in HeLa cells. Interestingly, both the types of SLs did not affect the viability of non-cancerous cells. Moreover, CAS, when used as a coating material, induced proliferation in macrophage cell line, RAW264.7.
Conclusion: The present study provides an important clue towards the anti-cancer potential of OAS and CAS derived from Candida bombicola. Interestingly, the ability of CAS to promote the proliferation of non-cancerous cells suggests its future application as a scaffold for enhancing the adhesion and proliferation of normal cells.
Keywords: Oleic acid sophorolipids, Cetyl alcohol sophorolipids, Breast cancer, Cervical cancer
2. Gorin PAJ, Spencer JFT, Tulloch AP. Hydroxy fatty acid glycosides of sophorose from Torulopsis magnolia. Canadian J Chem 1961;39:846-55.
3. Tulloch AP, Spencer JFT, Deinema MH. A new hydroxy fatty acid sophoroside from Candida bogoriensis. Canadian J Chem 1968;46:345-8.
4. Chen J, Song X, Zhang H, Qu YB, Miao JY. Sophorolipid produced from the new yeast strain Wickerhamiell adomercqiae induces apoptosis in H7402 human liver cancer cells. Appl Microbial Biotechnol 2006;72:52-9.
5. Thaniyavarn J, Chianguthai T, Sangvanich P, Roongsawang N, Washio K, Morikawa M, et al. Production of sophorolipid biosurfactant by Pichiaanomala. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008;72:2061-8.
6. Rashad MM, Sitohy MZ, Sharobeem SF, Mahmoud AE, Nooman MU, Al-Kashef AS. Production, purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from Candida guilliermondii using okara as a substrate. Adv Food Sci 2010;32:100-9.
7. Spencer JFT, Gorin PAJ. Systematics of the genus Torulopsis: proton magnetic resonance spectra of the mannose-containing polysaccharides as an aid in classification. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1970;36:509-24.
8. Daverey A, Pakshirajan K. Production, characterization, and properties of sophorolipids from the yeast Candida bombicolausing a low-cost fermentative medium. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2009:158;663-74.
9. Joshi-Navare K, Shiras A, Prabhune A. Differentiation-inducing ability of sophorolipids of oleic and linoleic acids using a glioma cell line. Biotechnol J 2011;6:509-12.
10. Rashad MM, Nooman MU, Ali MM, Al-kashef AS, Mahmoud AE. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil. Grasas Aceites 2014;65:1-9.
11. Shao L, Song X, Ma X, Li H, Qu Y. Bioactivities of sophorolipid with different structures against human esophageal cancer cells. J Surg Res 2012;173:286-91.
12. Chen J, Song X, Zhang H, Qu YB, Miao JY. Sophorolipid produced from the new yeast strain Wickerhamiell adomercqiae induces apoptosis in H7402 human liver cancer cells. Appl Microbial Biotechnol 2006;72:52-9.
13. Dubey P, Selvaraj K, Asmita P. Physico-chemical, analytical and antimicrobial studies of novel sophorolipids synthesized using cetyl alcohol. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:993-1010.
14. Dey G, Bharti R, Sen R, Mandal M. Microbial amphiphiles: a class of promising new-generation anticancer agents. Drug Discovery Today 2015;20:136-46.
15. RibeiroI A, Faustino C, Guerreiro PS, Frade RF, Bronze MR, Castro MF, et al. Development of novel sophorolipids with improved cytotoxic activity toward MDAâ€MBâ€231 breast cancer cells. J Mol Recognit 2015;28:155-65.
16. Koppikar SJ, Choudhari AS, Suryavanshi SA, Kumari S, Chattopadhyay S, Kaul-Ghanekar R. Aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. BMC Cancer 2010;10:210.
17. Choudhari AS, Raina P, Deshpande MM, Wali AG, Zanwar A, Bodhankar SL, et al. Evaluating the anti-inflammatory potential of Tectaria cicutaria L. rhizome extract in vitro as well as in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:215-22.
18. Chomchalao P, Pongcharoen S, Sutheerawattananonda M, Tiyaboonchai W. Fibroin and fibroin blended three-dimensional scaffolds for rat chondrocyte culture. Biomed Eng Online 2013;12:28.